Honey bee

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Honey bees
Temporal range: Oligocene–Recent
Apis mellifera flying.jpg
European honey bee carrying pollen back to the hive
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Family: Apidae
Subfamily: Apinae
Tribe: Apini
Genus: Apis
Linnaeus, 1758
Species
  • Subgenus Megapis:
  • Subgenus Apis:

A honey bee (or honeybee) is any bee that is a member of the genus Apis. They produce and store honey and make perennial, colonial nests from wax. They are in contrast with the stingless honey bee.

Honey bees are the only living members of the tribe Apini, all in the genus Apis. There are only seven species of honey bee, with a total of 44 subspecies.[1] Historically, from six to eleven species have been recognized.

Honey bees are only a small fraction of the roughly 20,000 known species of bees. Some other types of related bees produce and store honey, but only members of the genus Apis are true honey bees. The study of honey bees is known as 'melittology'.

The first Apis bees appear in the fossil record at the EoceneOligocene boundary (34 million years ago (mya)), in European deposits. This shows that the bees were present in Europe by that time. Few fossil deposits are known from South Asia, the suspected region of honey bee origin.

No Apis species existed in the New World during human times before the introduction of A. mellifera by Europeans. Only one fossil species is known, a single 14-million-year-old specimen from Nevada.[2]

The close relatives of modern honey bees – bumblebees and stingless bees – are also social to some degree,

References[change | change source]

  1. Engel, Michael S. 1999.. "The taxonomy of recent and fossil honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apis)". Journal of Hymenoptera Research 8: 165–196.
  2. Michael S. Engel et al (2009). "A honey bee from the Miocene of Nevada and the biogeography of Apis (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Apini)". Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 60 (3): 23–38.