Hong Kong

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Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China

中華人民共和國香港特別行政區
Jūng'wàh Yàhnmàhn Guhng'wòhgwok Hēunggóng Dahkbiht Hàhngjingkēui
(Hong Kong Cantonese)
Flag of Hong Kong
Flag
{{{coat_alt}}}
Emblem
Anthem: 
City flower
Location of Hong Kong within China
Location of Hong Kong within China
StatusSpecial administrative region
Official languages
Official scripts
Ethnic groups
(2017)
Demonym(s)
GovernmentDevolved executive-led parliamentary system within socialist republic
Carrie Lam[1]
Matthew Cheung
Paul Chan Mo-po
Rimsky Yuen
Andrew Leung
Geoffrey Ma
National representation
36 deputies (of 2,924)
203 delegates[4]
LegislatureLegislative Council
Autonomy within the People's Republic of China
26 January 1841
29 August 1842
18 October 1860
9 June 1898
25 December 1941
to 15 August 1945

1 July 1997
Area
• Total
2,755[5] km2 (1,064 sq mi) (184th)
• Water (%)
59.8 (1,649 km2; 637 sq mi)[6][7]
Population
• 2017 estimate
7,389,500[8] (100th)
• Density
6,544[3]/km2 (16,948.9/sq mi) (4th)
GDP (PPP)2016[9] estimate
• Total
$429.652 billion (44th)
• Per capita
$58,322 (11th)
GDP (nominal)2016[9] estimate
• Total
$320.668 billion (33th)
• Per capita
$43,528 (16th)
Gini (2016)Negative increase 53.9[10]
high
HDI (2015)Increase 0.917[11]
very high · 12th
CurrencyHong Kong dollar (HK$) (HKD)
Time zoneUTC+8 (Hong Kong Time)
Date formatdd-mm-yyyy
yyyy年mm月dd日
Driving sideleft
Calling code+852
ISO 3166 codeHK
Internet TLD
Website
gov.hk
  1. ^ Cantonese is the de facto standard.
  2. ^ For all government use, documents written using Traditional Chinese characters are authoritative over ones inscribed with Simplified Chinese characters. English shares equal status with Chinese in all official proceedings.[12][13][14]

Hong Kong (/ˌhɒŋˈkɒŋ/ (About this soundlisten); Chinese: 香港, Hong Kong Cantonese: [hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ] (About this soundlisten), literally "Fragrant Port"), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is one of two Special Administrative Regions (SARs) of the People's Republic of China (the other is Macau). It is one of the richest and most highly developed places in China and even the world. Hong Kong grew quickly in the decades after World War II. It is now a famous world class financial center.

The population of Hong Kong is more than seven million. The economy has rapidly grown from a trading port to a very rich city.

Hong Kong is divided into 3 main parts:

Hong Kong was a British colony from 1842 to 1997 because China lost the Second Opium War. After the Handover, Hong Kong became a part of China.

Hong Kong has its own constitution that is different from that of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

Climate[change | change source]

Hong Kong is in a tropical area, and has monsoon winds. It is cool and wet in winter (Jan-Mar), hot and rainy from spring through summer (Apr-Sep), and warm, sunny and dry in the autumn (Oct-Dec). The rainy season is from May until September. In summer and early autumn, there is a frequent threat of typhoons. As Hong Kong is located nearly at the centre of the Eurasian Plate, there are seldom tsunamis and earthquakes.

Population and language[change | change source]

The population of Hong Kong reached 7 million in 2009. Most of the people in Hong Kong are Chinese. Hong Kong is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It has an overall density of 6,300 people per square kilometre.

Hong Kong has one of the world’s lowest birth rates—1.11 per woman of child-bearing age as of 2012. This is far below the rate needed to replace each person, 2.1.

People from Hong Kong mainly speak Cantonese. Students are required to learn English at school. Ever since Hong Kong became a part of China, the number of people who speak Mandarin has increased because Mandarin is the official language of the PRC. Some schools have a different track for each of the three languages, depending on the language the student is most comfortable with, and teach all non-language subjects (e.g. Maths, science etc.) in the language of the track.

Public holidays[change | change source]

17 days of the year are public holidays in Hong Kong:

Currency[change | change source]

There are coins from 10 cents to 10 Hong Kong dollars; and bank-notes (paper money bills) from $10 to $1000. One American dollar is equal to about $7.75 in Hong Kong dollars, at the official bank exchange rate.

Public transport[change | change source]

  • Mass Transit Railway (MTR) which was established in 1979, owns seven lines (10 lines after KCR merger),
    • Kwun Tong Line (running between Whampoa/Ho Man Tin and Tiu Keng Leng)
    • Tsuen Wan Line (running between Tsuen Wan and Central)
    • Island Line (running between Kennedy Town and Chai Wan)
    • South Island Line (running between Admiralty and South Horizons)
    • Tseung Kwan O Line (running between Po Lam/LOHAS Park and North Point)
    • Tung Chung Line (running between Tung Chung/Tsing Yi and Hong Kong)
    • Airport Express (running between AsiaWorld-Expo and Hong Kong)
    • Disneyland Resort Line (running between Sunny Bay and Disneyland Resort)
    • East Rail Line (running between Hung Hom and Lo Wu/Lok Ma Chau)
    • West Rail Line (running between Hung Hom and Tuen Mun/Kam Sheung Road)
    • Ma On Shan Line (running between Wu Kai Sha and Tai Wai)
  • Bus: there are four major bus companies in Hong Kong, such as KMB which mainly services Kowloon, the rest are New Lantau Bus, who mainly services Lantau Island, Citybus, which mainly serves airport routes and New World First Bus, which mainly services Hong Kong Island.
  • Public Light Bus: in 1960s, it was an illegal transportation, but later on, the government noticed that if there were only buses in Hong Kong, then some villages in N.T. will not have a public transport. Therefore, the Legislative Council legislated (made a law) for it to be legal and under the government control.
  • Tram (running between Kennedy Town, Happy Valley, and Shau Kei Wan)
  • Peak Tram (running between Garden Road and Victoria Peak)
  • Taxi (Red, Green, and Blue)
  • Ferry (Lots of different companies, including the Star Ferry, First Ferry and Fortune Ferry companies)

Housing in Hong Kong[change | change source]

Hong Kong has the most unaffordable housing market in the world. This according to a study which compared ninety metropolitan areas in different countries. [15] An article in the National Post on July 6, 2019, said that the cause of the protests is not the proposed extradition law alone , but also the high cost of housing. [16]

Timeline of Hong Kong[change | change source]

Here is a brief history of Hong Kong:

Some very old rocks found in Hong Kong

Around 4000 BC

  • Sea levels rose above 100 meters

Around 3500 BC

  • Ceramic forms decorated with a wide range of patterns

Around 2000 BC

  • Bronze weapons, knives, arrowheads & tools.
  • Metal worked locally

Around 500 BC

  • Ancient Chinese writing developed

221 BC

220 BC

  • Coins from the Chinese Han period were used in Hong Kong

1555

  • A Portuguese named Jorge Álvares was the first European to reach Hong Kong

1799

  • China banned the drug trade in Hong Kong

1800

  • Opium became a huge business
Opium flower

1839

  • Lin Zexu was appointed Special Commissioner
  • The First Opium war began

1841

January 26, 1841

  • The British flag was raised at Possession Point, on Hong Kong Island

August 1841

  • Sir Henry Pottinger became Hong Kong's first governor
  • The Treaty of Nanjing was signed, ending the First Opium War

1860

  • China was defeated in the Second Opium War. Boundary Street and Stonecutter's Island were leased to Britain

1888

  • The Peak Tram started operating on Hong Kong Island

1898

  • Lantau Island and the New Territories were leased to the British for 99 years

1900s

  • Hong Kong became a refuge for exiles from China

1920s-1930s

  • Western dress began to come in fashion for the locals

1933-1934

  • Father Daniel Finn began excavations on Lamma Island

1941

  • Refugees fleeing the Chinese Communist Party came to Hong Kong
Bauhinia × blakeana was adopted as the floral emblem of Hong Kong by the Urban Council in 1965.
The armorial bearings granted by the College of Arms, appointed by the British Sovereign, a part of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom.
Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China's emblem after it was given to China since 1997. The Chinese name of Bauhinia × blakeana has also been frequently shortened as 紫荊/紫荆 (洋 yáng means "foreign" in Chinese, and this would be deemed inappropriate by the PRC government), although 紫荊/紫荆 refers to another genus called Cercis. A statue of the plant has been erected in Golden Bauhinia Square in Hong Kong. Although the flowers are bright pinkish purple in colour, they are depicted in white on the Flag of Hong Kong.

December 8, 1941

  • The Empire of Japan invaded Hong Kong

December 25, 1941

  • The British authorities surrendered Hong Kong to the Japanese Army

August 1945

  • Britain reclaimed its territory after Japan's surrender

1949

  • Double-decker buses were introduced to Hong Kong

1950

  • Hong Kong became a free port

1953

  • The Shek Kip Mei Estate was built, establishing the program of public housing

1955

  • A Han period tomb was discovered near Lei Cheng Uk

1983

  • The Hong Kong dollar was tied to the US dollar

1984

  • China and Britain signed the Sino-British Joint Declaration

1990

  • The Hong Kong Basic Law was confirmed

1997

  • Asia's financial crisis
  • Archaeologists discovered 20 graves on the island of Ma Wa
  • Tung Chee Wa elected as the first Chief Executive of Hong Kong. Voting was conducted by 400 committees of an electoral college whose members are appointed by the Chinese Government.

July 1, 1997

  • Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region of China for 50 years

1998

  • Hong Kong International Airport replaced Kai Tak Airport in Kowloon

June 2002

2003

  • Citizens wanted a more democratic and republican system
  • The SARS epidemic began

March 10, 2005

  • Tung Chee Wa retired as chief executive because of health problems.

June 16, 2005

March 2012

2014

  • People occupied the Central region to demand universal suffrage for the next chief executive election, to take place in in 2017.

2015

  • The government voted against the universal suffrage demanded by the people.

2016

  • There were more protests in Mong Kok and police had to spray pepper spray on the people to get them to leave.

2019

  • Protestors in Hong Kong demonstrated against a new extradition law proposed by the government of mainland China.[17] It was the largest protest in Hong Kong's history[18] According to Wikinews this law would allow Mainland China to extradite people living or visiting Hong Kong who may be fugitives.[19] The reputation of China had been damaged by allegations of torture, forced confessions and arbitrary detentions before.[20]

Media[change | change source]

Hong Kong has a few media companies, notably Television Broadcasts Limited (TVB).

Places in Hong Kong[change | change source]

Notes[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. https://supchina.com/2017/04/10/dire-state-female-representation-chinese-government/
  2. "Basic Law Full Text - Annex III". Hong Kong Government. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Main Tables - Population by Ethnicity and Year". 2016 Population By-Census. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  4. Cheung, Tony (28 February 2017). "Who goes there? Hong Kong's participation in China's 'two sessions' explained". South China Morning Post. Hong Kong. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  5. CIA The World Fact Book
  6. "Maps and Services" Survey and Mapping Office
  7. "Hong Kong Geographic Data" (PDF). Retrieved 1 Sep 2017.
  8. "Population – Overview – Census and Statistics Department".
  9. 9.0 9.1 "Hong Kong". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 4 June 2017.
  10. "Thematic Report : Household Income Distribution in Hong Kong 2016" (PDF). Government of Hong Kong. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
  11. "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2017.
  12. "Hong Kong – the Facts". GovHK. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  13. "OFFICIAL LANGUAGES DIVISION". Civil Service Bureau. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  14. "Disclaimer and Copyright Notice". Legislative Council. 27 November 2017.
  15. https://business.financialpost.com/opinion/why-ottawas-attempts-to-help-young-canadians-afford-housing-simply-wont-work
  16. https://nationalpost.com/news/real-cause-of-Hong-Kong-protests-is-cost-of-housing
  17. https://nationalpost.com/news/world/black-clad-anti-extradition-protesters-flood-streets-of-hong-kong
  18. https://www.theepochtimes.com/by-involving-north-korea-and-iran-beijing-tries-to-divert-public-attention-from-mass-protest-in-hong-kong_2968897.html
  19. https://en.wikinews.org/wiki/Hong_Kong_protesters_surround_downtown_police_complex
  20. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-china-48715221

Other websites[change | change source]

  • "Hong Kong". The World Factbook. CIA. 23 August 2010. Retrieved 17 September 2010.