House of Representatives (Netherlands)

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House of Representatives
Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal
States General of the Netherlands
Coat of arms or logo
Type
Type
Leadership
Vera Bergkamp, D66
Since 7 April 2021
First Vice President
Ockje Tellegen, VVD
Since 31 October 2017
Second Vice President
Martin Bosma, PVV
Since 30 June 2010
Structure
Seats150
Tweede Kamer 2021.svg
Political groups
Government (77)
  •   VVD (34)
  •   D66 (24)
  •   CDA (14)
  •   CU (5)

Opposition (73)

Length of term
4 years
Elections
Party-list proportional representation D'Hondt method
Last election
17 March 2021
Next election
March 2025 or earlier
Meeting place
Tweede kamer.jpg
House of Representatives Chamber
Binnenhof
The Hague, Netherlands
Website
www.houseofrepresentatives.nl

The House of Representatives, Dutch: Tweede Kamer (literally Second Chamber), is the lower house of the States General, the parliament of the Netherlands.

It is comparable with the House of Representatives in other countries, because it is chosen by direct elections.

It consists of 150 members, who are chosen every four years or earlier when the government has been brought down.

In contrast with the First Chamber or Senate the Second Chamber has extensive legislative powers.

House of Representatives 2021-present[change | change source]

The elections for the new House of Representatives were held on Wednesday 17 March 2021. The new House has been installed on 31 March 2021.

Parties with considerable gains are the progressive liberal party D66, the populist parties FVD and JA21, and newcomer Volt. Considerable losses have been suffered by the Christian democratic party CDA, the left parties GL and SP, the populist party PVV, and the senior party 50+.

BBB and BIJ1 have made their first appearance in parliament.

On 6 May 2021, Liane den Haan left 50+ and has become an independent MP. On 13 May 2021, Wybren van Haga and two other MPs left FVD and have become the Group Van Haga. On 12 June 2021, Pieter Omtzigt left the CDA and has become an independent MP.

Party Dutch name Shortened Parliamentary leader Original seats Seats
after changes
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie VVD Mark Rutte 34 34
Democrats 66 Democraten 66 D66 Sigrid Kaag (-2021), Rob Jetten (2021-) 24 24
Party for Freedom Partij voor de Vrijheid PVV Geert Wilders 17 17
Christian Democratic Appeal [1] Christen-Democratisch Appèl CDA Wopke Hoekstra 15 14
Socialist Party Socialistische Partij SP Lilian Marijnissen 9 9
Labour Party Partij van de Arbeid PvdA Lilianne Ploumen 9 9
GreenLeft GroenLinks GL Jesse Klaver 8 8
Forum for Democracy [2] Forum voor Democratie FVD Thierry Baudet 8 5
Party for the Animals Partij voor de Dieren PvdD Esther Ouwehand 6 6
ChristianUnion ChristenUnie CU Gert-Jan Segers 5 5
Volt Netherlands Volt Nederland Volt Laurens Dassen 3 3
JA21 JA21 JA21 Joost Eerdmans 3 3
Reformed Political Party Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij SGP Kees van der Staaij 3 3
DENK DENK DENK Farid Azarkan 3 3
50PLUS [3] 50PLUS 50+ Liane den Haan (2021), / 1 0
FarmerCitizenMovement BoerBurgerBeweging BBB Caroline van der Plas 1 1
BIJ1 BIJ1 BIJ1 Sylvana Simons 1 1
Group Van Haga [2] Groep-Van Haga Wybren van Haga / 3
Member Den Haan [3] Lid-Den Haan Liane den Haan / 1
Member Omtzigt [1] Lid-Omtzigt Pieter Omtzigt / 1
Total 150 150

House of Representatives 2017-2021[change | change source]

The general elections for this House of Representatives were held on Wednesday 15 March 2017. This House was installed on 23 March 2017 and dissolved on 31 March 2021.

When the results were announced, the Labour Party (PvdA) lost many seats, while the winner, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) led by Mark Rutte, also lost seats, but not as many.

Most of the opposition parties won seats. The populist Party for Freedom (PVV) of Geert Wilders did not win as many seats as were expected of them, but they became second in the number of seats they had. More seats were won by (especially) GreenLeft (GL), Democrats 66 (D66), the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), the Party for the Animals (PvdD), and 50PLUS (50+), along with the newly formed parties DENK and Forum for Democracy (FVD). The only other party to lose seats was the Socialist Party (SP), while the small Christian parties ChristianUnion (CU) and Reformed Political Party (SGP) did not gain or lose any seats.

President of the House of Representatives was Khadija Arib (PvdA).

Party Dutch name Shortened Parliamentary leader Original seats Seats
after changes
People's Party for Freedom and Democracy [4] Volkspartij voor Vrijheid en Democratie VVD Klaas Dijkhoff 33 32
Party for Freedom Partij voor de Vrijheid PVV Geert Wilders 20 20
Christian Democratic Appeal Christen-Democratisch Appèl CDA Sybrand van Haersma Buma (-2019), Pieter Heerma (2019-) 19 19
Democrats 66 Democraten 66 D66 Alexander Pechtold (-2018), Rob Jetten (2018-) 19 19
GreenLeft GroenLinks GL Jesse Klaver 14 14
Socialist Party Socialistische Partij SP Emile Roemer (-2017), Lilian Marijnissen (2017-) 14 14
Labour Party Partij van de Arbeid PvdA Lodewijk Asscher (-2021), Lilianne Ploumen (2021-) 9 9
ChristianUnion ChristenUnie CU Gert-Jan Segers 5 5
Party for the Animals [5] Partij voor de Dieren PvdD Marianne Thieme (-2019), Esther Ouwehand (2019-) 5 4
50PLUS [6] 50PLUS 50+ Henk Krol (-2020), Corrie van Brenk (2020-) 4 3
Reformed Political Party Staatkundig Gereformeerde Partij SGP Kees van der Staaij 3 3
DENK DENK DENK Tunahan Kuzu (-2020), Farid Azarkan (2020-) 3 3
Forum for Democracy Forum voor Democratie FVD Thierry Baudet 2 2
Member Van Haga [4] Lid-Van Haga Wybren van Haga / 1
Member Van Kooten [5] Lid-Van Kooten Femke Merel van Kooten / 1
Member Krol [6] Lid-Krol Henk Krol / 1
Total 150 150

General elections results since 1946[change | change source]

Original seats in post-war Second Chamber (Tweede Kamer).
Coalitian parties marked in olive.
Prime Minister's party in bold.[7]

Party 2021 2017 2012 2010 2006 2003 2002 1998 1994 1989 1986 1982 1981 1977 1972 1971 1967 1965 1963 1959 1956 1952 1948 1946
VVD 34 33 41 31 22 28 24 38 31 22 27 36 26 28 22 16 17 16 16 19 13 9 8 6
* PvdV 6
D66 24 19 12 10 3 6 7 14 24 12 9 6 17 8 6 11 7
PVV 17 20 15 24 9
CDA 15 19 13 21 41 44 43 29 34 54 54 45 48 49 48 58 69 76 76 75 77 51 54 53
* ARP 14 13 15 13 13 14 15 12 13 13
* CHU 7 10 12 13 13 12 13 9 9 8
* KVP 27 35 42 50 50 49 49 30 32 32
SP 9 14 15 15 25 9 9 5 2
PvdA 9 9 38 30 33 42 23 45 37 49 52 47 44 53 43 39 37 43 43 48 50 30 27 29
GL 8 14 4 10 7 8 10 11 5 6 3 9 9 6 16 10 9 8 8 5 7 6 8 10
* CPN 3 3 2 7 6 5 4 4 3 7 6 8 10
* EVP 1
* PPR 2 2 3 3 7 2
* PSP 1 3 3 1 2 2 4 4 4 2
FVD 8 2
PvdD 6 5 2 2 2
CU 5 5 5 5 6 3 4 5 5 3 2 3 3 1 2 2 1 1 1
* GPV 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1
* RPF 3 3 1 1 2 2
Volt 3
JA21 3
SGP 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2
DENK 3 3
50+ 1 4 2
BBB 1
BIJ1 1
LPF 8 26
LN 2
AOV 6
CD 3 1
DS'70 1 6 8
BP 1 3 1 7 3 3
others 1 1 1 2 2 1
Total coalition 78 76 79 76 80 78 93 97 92 103 81 81 109 77 97 82 86 106 92 94 127 81 76 61
Total 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 100 100 100

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Member Omtzigt split from CDA.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Group Van Haga split from FVD.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Member Den Haan split from 50+.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Member Van Haga split from VVD.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Member Van Kooten split from PvdD.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Member Krol split from 50+.
  7. Prime Minister's party:
    1956 elections: 1956-1958 PvdA, 1958-1959 KVP.
    1965 elections: 1965-1966 KVP, 1966-1967 ARP.
    1972 elections: 1972-1973 ARP, 1973-1977 PvdA.