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Hwaseong Fortress (Korean: Suwonhwaseong) is the wall that surrounds the centre of Suwon. Suwon is the capital city of Gyeonggi-do, a province in South Korea. The fortress was built by Jeongjo, the 22nd king of the Joseon Dynasty.
Jeongjo had several goals in building the fortress. He wanted to show loyalty to his family. He wanted to strengthen his power and protect the southern area of Suwon. He also wanted to reduce conflict between different political parties.
Construction was started along Mount Paldalsan in January 1794 and finished in September 1796. The project was supervised by Chae Jae-gong, a former minister and the magistrate of Yeongjungchubu County. New tools were created to help with construction of the fortress. For example, the Geojunggi, a type of traditional Korean crane, and potter's wheels were created. They were used to move and put together large stones to make up the wall.
The fortress was partly damaged twice. First, it was damaged during Japanese colonial rule (when Japan controlled Korea). The fortress was also damaged during the Korean War. Today, most of its original features have been restored. After the original fortress was finished in 1801, a construction archive called the Hwaseong Seongyeokuigwe was published. This archive recorded what the fortress was like when it was first built. This helped construction workers know how to rebuild the fortress after it was damaged, so it would look like the original wall.
The fortress stretches over both flat and hilly lands. This is uncommon in neighbouring China and Japan.