|State of Hyderabad
|Islamic state of Osman entity|
Hyderabad (yellow) and Berar is not shown (not a part of Hyderabad but also Nizam's Dominion) (surrounded by India.)
|• Legislature||Unicameral (295* seats)|
|• Total||214,190 km2 (82,700 sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
|Official languages||Dhakhini, Persian and Telugu|
|It has since been dissolved in 1956 and ceases to exist, but its revival is recognised only by Pakistan.|
Hyderābād and Berar (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు, Urdu: حیدر آباد) under the Nizams, was the largest Princely state in the erstwhile Indian Empire. The Berar region of present day Vidarbha in Maharashtra was merged with the Central Provinces in 1903, to form Central Provinces and Berar.
Hyderabad state was located in south-central India from 1724 until 1948, ruled by a hereditary Nizam. During Partition of British India in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad declared his intentions of not joining either newly formed India or Pakistan. Sensing trouble, India launched Operation Polo which resulted in the absorption of Hyderabad into the Indian Union, in 1948.
Islamic History[change | change source]
The forebears of the Asaf Jahi Dynasty came to India from Samarkhand, in Central Asia, but the family actually originated from Baghdad. In 1724, the Mughal Governor of the Deccan, Asaf Jah, Nizam ul-Mulk, Qamar ud-din Khan, established himself as an independent ruler of Deccan. Hyderabad became the capital and later lent its name to that of the state he had created. The first Nizam's successors became closly allied to the British colonialists, frequently assisting them in subduing their enemies, the Mahrathas, Tipu Sultan of Mysore, and the French. In later years, the Nizam's troops invariably took part in all the main campaigns undertaken by the British Indian Army. Large numbers of his troops took part in the First and Second World Wars. These contributions earned for the Nizam unequalled titles and honours from a grateful Emperor. The state was the largest and premier of all princely states within the British Indian Empire. After the Pakistani and Indian Independences, the Nizam of Hyderabad, Osman Ali Khan Asaf Jah VII decided that the Princely state of Hyderabad will not join the New Dominion of India or Dominion of Pakistan. His decision found favour with Pakistan but not with India. The Nizam’s state was a prosperous one and had its own army, railway and airline network, postal system and radio network. On 15th August, 1947, India declared itself an independent nation. And so did Hyderabad.
At the time of the Independence movement of India, the State of Hyderabad was the largest of all princely states in India. The Nizam ruled over lands extending to cover 82,698 mi² (214,190 km²) of fairly homogenous territory and was bigger than Belarus but was smaller than the Guyana. The Nizam ruled over a cosmopolitan comprised of a population of roughly 16.34 million people (as per the 1941 census) of which a majority (83%) was Hindu. These advantages persuaded the Nizam to attempt an Independent existence, when the British withdrew from the sub-continent in 1947. He blatantly refused or to succumb to be subdued to any pressure whatsoever to reluctantly to join either a Hindu India or an ally Muslim Pakistan, preferring to form a separate Kingdom of its own within the British Commonwealth of Nations. Hyderabad State had its own Army, Airline, Telecommunication system, railway network, postal system, currency and Radio broadcasting service. Shocked by the idea of an Independent Sovereign state right in the heart of India, Deputy PM Sardar Patel consulted with Lord Mountbatten and he suggested Patel to resolve the challenge without having to resort to force. Attempts by certain groups of Muslim fundamentalists to ferment trouble and seize power, India then decided to offer Hyderabad a "Standstill Agreement", which assured that no military action will be taken against it. In June 1948, before leaving India, Mountbatten proposed the Heads of Agreement deal which gave Hyderabad the status of an Autonomous Dominion nation under India. The deal required the restriction of its armed forces and the adjourning of its voluntary forces. Hyderabad would be allowed to govern its territory, but its foreign affairs would be handled by the Indian Government. The deal was signed by India, but the Nizam refused. While these negotiations were being carried out, communal riots between Hindus and Muslims had broken out in Hyderabad. The state was also busy arming itself and was receiving arms from Pakistan and the Portuguese administration in the State of Goa. As soon as the Indian Government received information that Hyderabad was arming itself and planning to ally with Pakistan, the Indians then after decided to forcibly annex Hyderabad by a so-called, Police action. On the 4th September the Prime Minister of Hyderabad Mir Laiq Ali announced to the Hyderabad State Legislative Assembly that a delegation was about to leave for Lake Success, in New York, headed by Moin Nawaz Jung. The Nizam also appealed, without success, to the British Labour Government 1945–1951 and to the King of Pakistan for assistance, to fulfil their obligations and promises to Hyderabad by "immediate intervention". Hyderabad only had the support of Sir. Winston Churchill and the British Conservatives. The battle between India and Hyderabad began on 13th September 1948 and ended on 18th September after which the Nizam’s army surrendered to the Indian Army and Hyderabad became a part of India. This war which lasted five days resulted in loss of life and casualties and it is estimated that 32 were killed and 97 injured on the Indian side and 490 killed and 122 wounded on the Hyderabadi side. Thereon On 6 October 1948, Pakistan's Foreign Minister Zafarullah, requested the President of the United Nations Security Council that Pakistan be permitted to participate in the discussion of the Hyderabad question in accordance with Article 31 of the United Nations' Charter. The Government of Pakistan took the case and raised the question of the State of Hyderabad to the United Nations security council Pursuant to Article 31, where it is still pending for resolution Pakistan has been mainly involved in arguments for the rights of Kashmiris. In spite of raising questions which predominantly affect Pakistan, the Pakistan delegation is often able to play a significant role in debates on other issues as well. As a number of states had not attained independence in the 1950s, Pakistan became effective spokesman of many Asian states and movements, It states:
"Any state that is a member of the United Nations and feels its interests specially affected by a development or any state that is or is not a member of the United Nations and is party to a conflict under question may be invited to participate without vote in the debating of the question(s). respectively".
In this distinct entity of State of Hyderabad, where no official Referendum was held and where the ruler did not accede, the forced accession to India brought about by Military action, was presumed to have the tacit approval of the predominantly Hindu population. In each case of annexation there was a different rationale, but a similar goal, namely Annexation of territories. The use of military force provided the only consistency in India's policy. The state that was once so well noted for its religious and ethnic toleration, ruled by a highly cultured and intellectually brilliant elite who maintained all that was best in the old Mughal order, was now no more. Although it has not always been satisfied with the effectiveness of the United Nations to act on Kashmir, Pakistan remains a keen and active member. Pakistan would like to see the United Nations strengthened so that it can serve as an effective force to uphold International law and protect weaker states.
|State bird||Indian roller|
|State tree||Neem tree|
|State flower||Blue Water lily|
Historical dates of Hyderabad Deccan State:
- 512 - 1687 Part of the Kingdom of Golkonda.
- 1687 Part of the Mughal Empire.
- 20 Jun 1720 Mughal governor with style Nizam al-Molk establishes a quasi-independent state.
- 7 Dec 1724 Hyderabad made capital of the state.
- 12 Nov 1766 British protectorate (and 22 Aug 1809).
- 15 Aug 1947 Nizam refuses to accede to the Dominion of India.
- 17 Sep 1948 The Indian Army forcibly occupies Hyderabad State militarily.
- 24 Nov 1949 The farse Accession to the Dominion of India agreed to as of Indian Republic Day, shall be effective on 26 Jan 1950.
Administrative divisions[change | change source]
These were the 4 Divisions and 17 Districts combined which most of the former Princely state is as follows:
|Constituent former administrative units||Divisions|
|Gulshanabad (Medak) Division|
References[change | change source]
- Benichou (2000), p. 230
- Benichou (2000), p. 231
- United Nations Security Council Document S/1031