|European tree frog, Hyla arborea|
Hyla is a genus of tree frogs in the family Hylidae. Over the years, scientists have changed their minds about which frog species should be in Hyla and which should be in Litoria, Ranoidea or other genera. At one time, Hyla had more than 300 species from Europe, Asia, Africa, and across the Americas. Now, Hyla has only 17 extant (living) species. They are from Europe, northern Africa and Asia. The earliest known fossil from a Hyla frog is †Hyla swanstoni from the Eocene. The fossil was found in Saskatchewan, Canada, but it is not clear whether we would consider swanstoni a Hyla frog today.
Josephus Nicolaus Laurenti made the genus in 1768. He named it after Hylas from Greek mythology. Hylas was a friend of Hercules. Even though the mythological person Hylas was male, the name Hyla is given the feminine grammatical gender.
Living species[change | change source]
|Binomial name||Common name|
|H. annectans (Jerdon, 1870)||Jerdon's tree frog|
|H. arborea (Linnaeus, 1758)||European tree frog|
|H. carthaginiensis Dufresnes, Beddek, Skorinov, Fumagalli, Perrin, Crochet, and Litvinchuk, 2019||Carthaginian tree frog|
|H. chinensis Günther, 1858||Common Chinese tree frog|
|H. felixarabica Gvoždík, Moravec, Klütsch & Kotlík, 2010||Arabian tree frog|
|H. hallowellii Thompson, 1912||Hallowell's tree frog|
|H. intermedia Boulenger, 1882||Italian tree frog|
|H. meridionalis Boettger, 1874||Mediterranean tree frog|
|H. molleri Bedriaga, 1889||Moller's tree frog|
|H. orientalis Bedriaga, 1890||Oriental tree frog|
|H. perrini Dufresnes, Mazepa, Rodrigues, Brelsford, Litvinchuk, Sermier, Lavanchy, Betto-Colliard, Blaser, Borzée, Cavoto, Fabre, Ghali, Grossen, Horn, Leuenberger, Phillips, Saunders, Savary, Maddalena, Stöck, Dubey, Canestrelli, and Jeffries, 2018||Perrin's tree frog|
|H. sanchiangensis Pope, 1929||San Chiang tree frog|
|H. sarda (De Betta, 1853)||Sardinian tree frog|
|H. savignyi Audouin, 1827||Middle East tree frog|
|H. simplex Boettger, 1901||Annam tree frog|
|H. tsinlingensis Liu and Hu in Hu, Zhao, and Liu, 1966||Shensi tree frog|
|H. zhaopingensis Tang and Zhang, 1984||Zhaoping tree frog|
Mating systems[change | change source]
Female choice based on male calling[change | change source]
In most Hyla frogs, the male frogs sing, and then the female frogs choose which male to mate with based on their songs. But females from different species like different things about male frogs' voices. Female H. versicolor, for example, choose males whose calls last longer. Female H. arborea choose males who show up to sing in the same place for many nights.
Male-male contests[change | change source]
In some Hyla frogs, the male frogs fight and compete. Male H. versicolor frogs show up where the females like to go. This behavior, called lekking, is common in many species of Hyla. In order to sing clearly, the males need to be a certain distance apart from each other. When one male gets too close to another male's singing place, the two males may fight or do something else that is like fighting. Male H. versicolor sometimes show off to each other before they fight, so they can see whether they are likely to win first.
Indirect selection[change | change source]
Indirect selection is when one partner chooses a mate based on just one thing that is related to how fit and healthy the mate is all together. H. arborea is a frog that is awake at night, and the females listen to the males sing and then choose one, so the frogs must be able to hear well. These frogs can also see well in low light. This ability to see may be related to how females choose males. Scientists say female H. arborea choose males with more brightly colored vocal sacs. They think colorful vocal sacs may show that the frog has enough carotenoids in the food it eats. This may mean the male frog is better at finding food than other frogs, and he might pass on some of this skill to his offspring.
References[change | change source]
- Faivovich, J.; Haddad, C.F.B.; Garcia, P.C.A.; Frost, D.R.; Campbell, J.A.; Wheeler, W.C., 2005: Systematic Review of the Frog Family Hylidae, with Special Reference to Hylinae: Phylogenetic Analysis and Taxonomic Revision. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, Num. 294, pp.1-240. (http://digitallibrary.amnh.org/dspace/bitstream/2246/462/1/B294.pdf)
- "Fossilworks: Hyla". fossilworks.org. Retrieved 2019-05-31.
- Charles W. Myers & Richard B. Stothers (2006). "The myth of Hylas revisited: the frog name Hyla and other commentary on Specimen medicum (1768) of J. N. Laurenti, the "father of herpetology"". Archives of Natural History. 33 (2): 241–266. doi:10.3366/anh.2006.33.2.241.
- "hyla". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. 2nd ed. 1989. It gives the 'wood' etymology.
- Gerhardt, H. Carl; Daniel, Richard E.; Perrill, Stephen A.; Schramm, Susan (1987). "Mating behaviour and male mating success in the green treefrog". Animal Behaviour. 35 (5): 1490–1503. doi:10.1016/s0003-3472(87)80021-0.
- Friedl, Thomas W. P.; Klump, Georg M. (2002-01-01). "The vocal behaviour of male European treefrogs (Hyla arborea): implications for inter-and intrasexual selection". Behaviour. 139 (1): 113–136. doi:10.1163/15685390252902319. ISSN 1568-539X.
- Gerhardt, H. Carl (1991). "Female mate choice in treefrogs: static and dynamic acoustic criteria". Animal Behaviour. 42 (4): 615–635. doi:10.1016/s0003-3472(05)80245-3.
- Sullivan, Brian K.; Hinshaw, Steven H. (1992). "Female choice and selection on male calling behaviour in the grey treefrog Hyla versicolor". Animal Behaviour. 44 (4): 733–744. doi:10.1016/s0003-3472(05)80299-4.
- Friedl, Thomas W.P.; Klump, Georg M. (2005). "Sexual selection in the lek-breeding European treefrog: body size, chorus attendance, random mating and good genes". Animal Behaviour. 70 (5): 1141–1154. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2005.01.017.
- Fellers, Gary M. (1979). "Aggression, territoriality, and mating behaviour in North American treefrogs". Animal Behaviour. 27: 107–119. doi:10.1016/0003-3472(79)90131-3.
- Reichert, M.S.; Gerhardt, H.C. (2011). "The role of body size on the outcome, escalation and duration of contests in the grey treefrog, Hyla versicolor". Animal Behaviour. 82 (6): 1357–1366. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2011.09.019.
- Gomez, Doris; Richardson, Christina; Lengagne, Thierry; Plenet, Sandrine; Joly, Pierre; Léna, Jean-Paul; Théry, Marc (2009-07-07). "The role of nocturnal vision in mate choice: females prefer conspicuous males in the European tree frog (Hyla arborea)". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1666): 2351–2358. doi:10.1098/rspb.2009.0168. ISSN 0962-8452. PMC 2690462. PMID 19324736.
Other websites[change | change source]
- Frost, Darrel R. 2007. Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 5.1 (10 October 2007). Hyla. Electronic Database accessible at https://web.archive.org/web/20071024033938/http://research.amnh.org/herpetology/amphibia/index.php. American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA. (Accessed: Apr 21, 2008).
- AmphibiaWeb: Information on amphibian biology and conservation. [web application]. 2008. Berkeley, California: Hyla. AmphibiaWeb, available at http://amphibiaweb.org/. (Accessed: Apr 21, 2008).
- eol - Encyclopedia of Life taxon Hyla at http://www.eol.org.