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Commercial use[change | change source]
Immobilised enzymes can be important for commercial uses as they have many benefits to the cost and processes of the reaction such as:
- Convenience: small amounts of protein dissolve in the reaction so purification of the product is easier.
- Economy: The immobilized enzyme is easily removed from the reaction so it can be recycled. This is useful in the production of lactose-free milk as the milk can be drained from a container leaving the enzyme (lactase) inside for the next batch.
- Stability: Immobilised enzymes normally have a higher thermal and operational stability than the soluble form of the enzyme.
- Safety: In the past, biological washing powders contained proteases and lipases that would break down dirt but also irritate the skin if it was touched - immobilization prevents this from happening
Methods[change | change source]
- Adsorption on glass: The enzyme is attached to a glass bead.
- Covalent bond: The enzyme is bound covalently to a support (such as silica gel).
- Cross-linkage: Multiple enzymes are bound together to create a matrix.
- Affinity-tag binding: Enzymes attached to a surface with protein tags.