An integron is a type of transposon, a mobile genetic element. It is a two-part genetic system found in bacteria, and maybe more widely. It is the way antibiotic resistance is passed on so rapidly. It is found in plasmids and chromosomes. Although the first function discovered was antibiotic resistance, other bacterial functions (traits) can be transferred by integrons.
Transposons are the gene "capture and expression elements" which put the small mobile elements known as gene cassettes in place and make them work. Usually, each cassette has only a single gene and a specific recombination site. The cassettes carry the DNA coding (= 'a gene') for antibiotic resistance (for example). Typically, the DNA would code for an enzyme which cleaves (cuts) the antibiotic molecule up.
The first part of an integron is a gene which codes for an enzyme which captures cassettes. The second is a site on the genome where the cassettes are inserted, and a promoter which drives expression of cassette-associated genes. "Integron" describes such structures both when no cassettes are present and when there are integrated cassettes. Cassettes can be inserted at the site, they can be cut out, and they can undergo horizontal gene transfer.
References[change | change source]
- King R.C; Stansfield W.D. & Mulligan P.K. 2006. A dictionary of genetics. 7th ed, Oxford University Press, p233. ISBN 0-19-530-761-5
- Partridge S.R. et al 2009. Gene cassettes and cassette arrays in mobile resistance integrons. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 33 (4) 757–784. 
- Hall R.M. & Collis C.M. 1995. Mobile gene cassettes and integrons: capture and spread of genes by site-specific recombination. Mol Microbiol 15, 593–600. 
Further reading[change | change source]
- Hall R.M. 2002. Integrons. In Encyclopedia of Genetics, S. Brenner & J.H. Miller (eds), vol 2. London: Academic Press.
- Hall R.M. 2002. Gene cassettes and integrons; moving single genes. In Horizontal Gene Transfer, pp. 19–28. M. Syvanan & C. Kado (eds). London: Harcourt.
- Recchia G.D. & Hall R.M. 1995. Gene cassettes: a new class of mobile element. Microbiology 141, 3015–3027. FREE Full Text [permanent dead link]