Internal conflict in Myanmar

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Internal conflict in Myanmar
Date2 April 1948[2] – present
(76 years, 1 month, 2 weeks and 4 days)
Location
Myanmar (Burma)
Status

Ongoing

  • Fighting since Myanmar separated from the United Kingdom in 1948
  • Major ethnic fighting in Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Rakhine, and Shan State
  • In 2011, the military government stops their rule over Myanmar
  • Numerous peace deals signed by many groups since 2011
  • Ongoing violence between government soldiers and rebels
Territorial
changes
Partially independent "self-administered zones" created for ethnic minorities in 2010
Belligerents

Myanmar Republic of the Union of Myanmar

  • Myanmar Armed Forces

Past combatants:
Union of Burma (1948–1962)

Military governments (1962–2011)

DKBA (1994–2010)

Rebel groups[note 1]
ABSDF (since 1988)
Arakan Army (since 2009)
ARSA (since 2016)
DKBA-5 (since 2010)
KIO (since 1961)

KNU (since 1949)

Karenni Army (since 1949)
MNLA (since 1958)
MNDAA (since 1989)
NDAA (since 1989)
SSAN (since 1971)
SSAS (since 1996)
TNLA (since 1992)
UWSP (since 1989)

...and others
Supported by:
 China (alleged)[1]

Past combatants:
Commanders and leaders

Myanmar Htin Kyaw
(President of Myanmar)
Myanmar Sein Win
(Minister of Defence)
Myanmar Min Aung Hlaing
(Commander-in-Chief)
Myanmar Soe Win
(Deputy Commander-in-Chief)

Past commanders:

Twan Mrat Naing
Ataullah abu Ammar Jununi (ARSA)
Naw Zipporah Sein
Saw Mutu Say Poe
Pheung Kya-shin
Yang Mao-liang
Bao Youxiang
Wei Hsueh-kang

Past commanders:
Strength

492,000[note 2]

Previous totals:
  • 43,000 (1951)
  • 289,000 (1995)[4]

600[5]–1,000[6]
1,500–2,500[7]
1,500[8]
8,000[9]
6,000
500–1,500
800+ (2,000 reserves)[10]
3,000–4,000[11]
4,000
8,000
6,000[12]–8,000
1,500+[13]
20,000[14]–25,000[15]
Unknown numbers of various other factions


Total:
70,000–80,000[16]

Previous totals:
  • 60,000–70,000 (1988)[17]
  • 50,000 (1998)[18]
  • 15,000 (2002)[19]
  • 6,000 (1951)
  • 4,000+ (1951)
  • 14,000 (1950)
Casualties and losses

130,000[20]–250,000[21] total killed

600,000–1,000,000 displaced or fled abroad[22]

The internal conflict in Myanmar refers to fighting between government soldiers and rebels in Myanmar, which began shortly after the country, formerly known as Burma, separated from the United Kingdom in 1948. The government of Myanmar has fought different rebel groups from different ethnic minorities. The cause of the conflict is the government's refusal to give minority groups such as the communists and the Karen people the amount of political representation that they want. Since the beginning of the fighting, hundreds of thousands of civilians in Myanmar have been killed and millions have become refugees.

Related pages[change | change source]

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Only active and/or large rebel groups are shown.
  2. This number includes soldiers not actively fighting rebels. The armed forces also have an additional 72,000 reserve (backup) soldiers.[3]

References[change | change source]

  1. Richard Michael Gibson (2011). The Secret Army: Chiang Kai-shek and the Drug Warlords of the Golden Triangle. John Wiley and Sons. p. 88. ISBN 978-0-470-83018-5.
  2. Lintner, Bertil; Wyatt (maps prepared by), David K. (1990). The rise and fall of the Communist Party of Burma (CPB). Ithaca, N.Y.: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University. p. 14. ISBN 0877271232. Retrieved 15 December 2016.
  3. International Institute for Strategic Studies; Hackett, James (ed.) (2010). The Military Balance 2010. London: Routledge, pp. 420-421. ISBN 1-85743-557-5.
  4. Heppner & Becker, 2002: 18–19
  5. "ABSDF". Myanmar Peace Monitor. 6 June 2013.
  6. Rotberg, Robert I. (June 1998). Burma. ISBN 0815791690.
  7. "'I Want to Stress That We Are Not the Enemy'". 12 June 2015. Retrieved 28 September 2015.
  8. "DKBA-5". Myanmar Peace Monitor. 6 June 2013.
  9. AP, 4 May 2012, Myanmar state media report battles between government troops, Kachin rebels killed 31
  10. "NMSP". Myanmar Peace Monitor. 6 June 2013.
  11. "47 Govt Troops Killed, Tens of Thousands Flee Heavy Fighting in Shan State". irrawaddy.org. 13 February 2015.
  12. Burma center for Ethnic Studies, Jan. 2012, "Briefing Paper No. 1" http://www.burmalibrary.org/docs13/BCES-BP-01-ceasefires(en).pdf
  13. "TNLA". Myanmar Peace Monitor. 6 June 2013.
  14. Johnson, Tim (29 August 2009). China Urges Burma to Bridle Ethnic Militia Uprising at Border. The Washington Post.
  15. Davis, Anthony. "Wa army fielding new Chinese artillery, ATGMs". IHS Jane's Defence Weekly. Retrieved 23 July 2015.
  16. "Armed ethnic groups". Myanmar Peace Monitor. 10 January 2013.
  17. Pavković, 2011: 476
  18. Bertil Lintner (1999). Burma in revolt: opium and insurgency since 1948. Bangkok: Silkworm Press. ISBN 978-974-7100-78-5.
  19. Myanmar: Armed forces. Encyclopedia of the Nations.
  20. "Modern Conflicts - Death Tolls .pdf" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 October 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2016.
  21. "De re militari: muertos en Guerras, Dictaduras y Genocidios". Retrieved 6 October 2014.
  22. Janie Hampton (2012). Internally Displaced People: A Global Survey. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-54705-8.