Iranian peoples

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Iranian peoples
Iranic peoples
Iranian languages distribution.png
Regions where Iranian languages ​​are spoken
Regions with significant populations
Western Asia and eastern half of Anatolia, Caucasus and Ossetia, Central Asia, western parts of South Asia, western Xinjiang
(Historically also: Eastern Europe)
 Iran79% of population[1]
 Afghanistan71% of population[2]
 Tajikistan79.9% of population[3]
 South Ossetia89.9% of population
Languages
Iranian languages (a branch of the Indo-European languages)
Religion
Predominately:
Islam (Sunni, Shia and Alevi)
Minorities:
Christianity (Eastern Orthodoxy, Nestorianism, Catholicism and Protestantism), Judaism, Baháʼí Faith, Yazidism, Yarsanism, Zoroastrianism, Assianism
(Historically also: Manichaeism and Buddhism)

The Iranian peoples or Iranic peoples, are a Ethno-linguistic group of Indo-Europeans.

Modern Iranian peoples include the Kurds,[4][5] Lurs, Mazanderanis, Ossetians, Azerbaijanis, Tats, Tajiks, Balochs, Talyshs, Zazas, Pashtuns, Pamiris, Yaghnobis, Wakhis, Persians and Gilaks.

Historical Iranian peoples include the; Alans, Scythians,[6][7][8] Dahae, Sakas, Medes, Bactrians, Sogdians, Sarmatians, Parthians, Khwarezmians, Cimmerians, and Daylamites.

Iranian states, dynasties, empires and countries

Historical

Peoples Dates Origin Reference
Achaemenid Kingdom 730 BC–549 BC Persian
Medes ca. 678 BC–549 BC Median
Achaemenid Empire 550 BC–330 BC Persian
Pharnacid dynasty c. 550 BC–320 BC Persian
Indo-Scythians 200 BC–400 AD Scythian
Shule Kingdom 200 BC–790 AD Saka
Kingdom of Pontus 281 BC–62 AD Ruled by Mithridatic dynasty of Persian origin [9][10]
Parthian Empire 247 BC–224 AD Parthian
Atropatene 320s BC–3rd century AD Iranian
Kingdom of Cappadocia 320s BC–17 AD Iranian [11]
Indo-Parthian Kingdom 12 BC–before 100 AD Parthian
Sasanian Empire 224 AD–651 AD Persian
Chosroid dynasty 284 AD–807 AD Parthian
Afrighids 305 AD–995 AD Khwarezmian
Mihranids 330 AD–821 AD Parthian [12]
Dabuyids 642 AD–760 AD Iranian
Bavandids 651 AD–1349 AD Iranian
Sadakiyans* 770 AD–827 AD Kurdish
Rustamids 777 AD–909 AD Persian
Tahirids* 821 AD–873 AD Persian [13]
Banijurids r. 848 AD–908 AD Iranian
Ghurids* before 879 AD–1215 AD Probably Tajik [14][15]
Saffarids 861 AD–1003 AD Persian [16][17][18][19]
Farighunids 9th-century AD–1010 AD Iranian
Sajids 889 AD–929 AD Sogdian [20]
Samanids* 819 AD–999 AD Iranian [21]
Musafirids 919 AD–1062 AD Daylamite [22]
Ziyarids 931 AD–1090 AD Gilak
Ilyasids 932 AD–968 AD Sogdian
Buyids 934 AD–1062 AD Daylamite [23]
Shaddadids 951 AD–1199 AD Kurdish [24][25][26]
Rawwadids* 955 AD–1070/1116 AD Arab origin, later Kurdicized [27]
Hasanuyids[a] 959 AD–1015 AD Kurdish [26]
Marwanids 983/990 AD–1085 AD Kurdish [28][29][30]
Annazids 990/991 AD–1117 AD Kurdish [31][26]
Ma'munids 995 AD–1017 AD Iranian [32]
Kakuyids 1008 AD–1141 AD Daylamite [33]
Hazaraspids 1115 AD–1424 AD Kurdish [34]
Atabegs of Yazd 1141 AD–1319 AD Persian [35]
Ayyubids* 1171 AD–1260/1341 AD Saladin, the founder of the dynasty, was a Kurd [36][37][38]
Khorsidi dynasty 1184 AD–1597 AD Kurdish
Kartids[b] 1244 AD–1381 AD Tajik [39]
Pervâneoğlu 1261-1326 Founder of the dynasty, Muin al-Din Sulayman Parwana, was of Persian origin [40]
Afrasiyab dynasty 1349 AD–1504 AD Iranian [41]
Lodi dynasty* 1451 AD–1526 AD Pashtun (Afghan)
Emirate of Palu 1495–1850 Kurdish
Safavid Empire* 1501 AD–1722/1736 AD The dynasty was partly or wholly of Kurdish origin. [42][43][44]
Baban 16th century–1850 Kurdish
Sur Empire 1538 AD–1556 AD Pashtun (Afghan) origin
Karrani dynasty 1564 AD–1576 AD Pashtun (Afghan)
Hotak Empire 1709 AD–1738 AD The dynasty was founded by the Pashtun Ghiji tribe [45]
Durrani Empire 1747 AD–1823 AD/1839 AD–1842 AD The dynasty was founded by the Pashtun Durrani tribe [46]
Zand dynasty 1751 AD–1794 AD The dynasty was founded by Karim Khan Zand, member of the Zand tribe, a branch of Lurs [47][48][49][50][51]
Barakzai dynasty 1823–1973 The dynasty was founded by Pashtun Barakzai tribe [52]
Pahlavi dynasty 1925 AD–1979 AD The dynasty was founded by Reza Shah of Mazanderani and Georgian descent [53][54]

Present-day

The following is a list of countries which have a significant population of Iranian people. These countries also recognize an Iranian language as an official language.

Independent countries

Country Ethic group Population %
 Iran Persian 61 [55]
Kurd 10
Lur 6
Baloch 2
Total population: 79,853,900 (2013 est.)
 Afghanistan Pashtun 42 [56]
Tajik 27
Baloch 2
Total population: 31,108,077(2013 est.)
 Tajikistan Tajik 79.9 [57]
Total population: 7,910,041 (2013 est.)
 South Ossetia Ossetian 89.9
Total population: 53,532 (2015)

Autonomous countries

Country Ethnic group % Total Population Ref
 Kurdistan 7,222,747 (2018 est.)
De facto SA-NES Flag.svgAANES[c] ≈2,000,000 (2018 est.)
 North Ossetia Ossetian 65.1 712,980 (2010)
 Dagestan Tat 0.5 2,910,249 (2010)

Notes

  1. Also known as Hasanwayhids
  2. Also known as Kart, Kert or Kurt dynasty
  3. Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria abbreviation of the name.

References

  1. "The World Factbook - Iran". Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.
  2. "The World Factbook - Afghanistan". Archived from the original on 12 October 2013.
  3. "The World Factbook". Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.
  4. Bois et al. 2012, p. 439.
  5. Donzel 1994, p. 222.
  6. Ivantchik 2018
  7. Harmatta 1996, p. 181
  8. Sulimirski 1985, pp. 149–153
  9. McGing 2004.
  10. McGing 2009.
  11. Weiskopf 1990, p. 780–786.
  12. Bosworth 2011, p. 520–522.
  13. Frye 1975b, p. 90.
  14. Bosworth 2001, p. 586–590.
  15. Wink 2020, p. 78.
  16. Bjork 2010.
  17. Aldosari, Ali (2007). Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. p. 472
  18. Daftary, Farhad (2012). Historical Dictionary of the Ismailis. p. 51
  19. Meisami, Julie Scott; Starkey, Paul (ed.) (1998). Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature. Vol. 2. p. 674
  20. Bosworth 1996, p. 147.
  21. Frye 1975a, p. 160.
  22. Bosworth 2000.
  23. Nagel 1990, p. 578–586.
  24. Bosworth 1996a, p. 151.
  25. Peacock 2000.
  26. 26.0 26.1 26.2 Kennedy 2016, p. 215.
  27. Peacock 2017.
  28. Bosworth 1996b, p. 89.
  29. Ashtiany et al. 1990, p. 15.
  30. Boyle 1968, p. 24.
  31. Aḥmad 1985, p. 97–98.
  32. Bosworth 1984, pp. 762–764.
  33. Bosworth 1998, p. 359–362.
  34. Bosworth 2003, p. 93.
  35. Bosworth 1996c, p. 206.
  36. Riley-Smith 2008, p. 64.
  37. Laine 2015, p. 133.
  38. Lewis 2002, p. 166.
  39. Gohari 2000, p. 4.
  40. Donzel 1994a, p. 290.
  41. Bosworth 1984b, p. 742–743.
  42. Matthee 2005, p. 17; Matthee 2008.
  43. Amoretti & Matthee 2009.
  44. Savory 2008, p. 8.
  45. Hanifi 2001, p. 670–672.
  46. Balland 1995, p. 513–519.
  47. Tucker 2020.
  48. Perry 2011, p. 561–564.
  49. Yarshater 2004, p. 234–238.
  50. Perry 2000.
  51. Perry 2002.
  52. Lansford 2017, p. 70.
  53. Aghaie 2011, p. 49.
  54. Amanat 2017, p. 473.
  55. "Iran". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States). "Persian 61%, Azeri 16%, Kurd 10%, Lur 6%, Baloch 2%, Arab 2%, Turkmen and Turkic tribes 2%, other 1%"
  56. "Afghanistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States). "Pashtun 42%, Tajik 27%, Hazara 9%, Uzbek 9%, Aimak 4%, Turkmen 3%, Baloch 2%, other 4%"
  57. "Tajikistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (United States). "Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)"

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