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Islam (Arabic: الإسلام, Al-Islam) is a religion that believes in one god. All of its teachings and beliefs are written out in the Qur'an (also spelled Quran or Koran). People who follow Islam are called Muslims. They believe that the Qur'an was spoken to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel, and that it is the word of Allah. They view Muhammad as a prophet. Other beliefs and rules about what Muslims should do come from reports of what Muhammad taught and did. Muslims believe Muhammad was Allah's last prophet.
Muslims believe that there were many other prophets before Muhammad, including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses and Jesus. They believe that all these prophets were given messages by God of the oneness of God to their communities at different times in history of mankind, but Satan, made the past communities deviate from the message of oneness and other social codes. Muslims believe that the content of the Qur'an (written in Arabic) is protected by Allah as mentioned in the Quran and is the final message of God for all of mankind until the day of judgment.
With about 1.8 billion followers (24% of the world's population), Islam is the second-largest religion in the world. Islam is also the fastest-growing religion in the world.
Meaning of the word "Islam"
The word Islam comes from the Arabic word "ʾislām" (إسلام) which means "submission (to Allah)".
Beliefs and practices
The Five Pillars of Islam
According to Islamic Tradition, there are five basic things that Muslims should do. They are called "The Five Pillars of Islam":
- Tawhid: The Testimony (faith in English) is the Muslim belief that there is no god but Allah himself, and that Muhammad is his last messenger.
- Sallah: Muslims pray five times a day, at special times of the day. When they pray, they face the holy city of Mecca. Salat is namaz in Persian, Turkish and Urdu. Shia Muslims can pray the afternoon and evening prayers right after each other.
- Zakah: Muslims who have money must give 1/40th of their money (charity in English) to help people who do not have money or need help.
- Sawm or Siyam: Fasting during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic year. Muslims do not eat or drink from dawn till sunset for one lunar month. After Ramadan, there is a holiday called Eid al-Fitr (which means "festival of end-fast" in English). On Eid al-Fitr, Muslims usually go to the mosque in the morning for a special religious service, and then have a party with families and friends.
- Hajj (Pilgrimage in English): During the pilgrimage season, many Muslims go to Mecca, the holiest city of Islam. If a Muslim cannot make the hajj because they do not have the money or are not healthy enough, they do not have to.
The Qur'an is the holy book of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur'an is the sayings of God.
Islam teaches that God revealed his message to Muhammad through angel Jibraeel who is the same angel which brought God`s message to the previous prophets. The Qur'an teaches Muslims to follow the right path by only doing good to please God. Muslims believe Allah alone decides who goes to Jannah (Heaven), and that doing good in this lifetime will bring them closer to God.
The Qur'an has a total of 114 chapters. In each chapter, there are many verses. Many Muslims try to memorize the entire Qur'an. A Muslim who does this is called a Hafiz or Hafez.
Place of worship
Muslims pray in a place of worship called the mosque. A mosque is called a masjid in Arabic. Most masjids have at least one dome, and some have one or more towers. But a masjid does not need to have a dome or tower.
Muslims take their shoes off before entering the masjid to pray. Prayer is one of the most important things that a Muslim does.
The Muslim is called to prayer five times a day. This call to prayer is called Adhan. The muezzin, a man chosen to make the call to prayer, uses a loudspeaker, which carries his voice to the people nearby. The call to prayer is often done out loud, in public, in Muslim countries. Being called to prayer is a normal part of daily life for most people in Muslim countries.
Sometimes, Muslims pray on a mat, which is called a prayer mat or prayer rug in English. Common Arabic names for the prayer mat include sajjāda and namazlık.
When it is time to pray, Muslims will figure out the direction of Qibla - the direction they are supposed to pray in, towards Mecca. They then roll out their prayer mat, and say their prayers to God.
Peace be upon him
According to Islamic teachings, Muslims must say "Peace be upon him" (PBUH or pbuh) whenever they hear Muhammad's name. In this way, they show respect to Muhammad.
Islam in the world
In 2009, a study was done in 232 countries and territories. This study found that 23% of the global population or 1.57 billion people are Muslims. Of those, between 75% and 90% are Sunni and between ten and twenty five percent are Shi'a. A small part belong to other Islamic sects. In about fifty countries, more than half of the people are Muslim. Arabs account for around twenty percent of all Muslims worldwide. Islam has three holy sites; Jerusalem, Mecca and Medina.
Most Muslims live in Asia and Africa. Around 62% of the world's Muslims live in Asia, with over 683 million followers in Indonesia, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. In the Middle East, non-Arab countries such as Turkey and Iran are the largest Muslim-majority countries; in Africa, Egypt and Nigeria have the biggest Muslim communities.
Most estimates indicate that the People's Republic of China has about 20 to 30 million Muslims (1.5% to 2% of the population). However, data provided by the San Diego State University's International Population Center to U.S. News & World Report suggests that China has 65.3 million Muslims. Islam is the second largest religion after Christianity in many European countries, and is slowly catching up to that status in the Americas.
Like with other religions, over time different movements have developed in Islam. These movements are based on different interpretations of the scriptures. The following sections list the most common movements.
- Non-denominational Muslims are Muslims who don't follow any branch and simply call themselves Muslim. They are also called Ghayr Muqallids.
- The Muwahidin or Muwahid Muslims are a Muslim restoration movement that accepts mainstream Islam, but prefer to orient themselves towards a primacy of God's commands on issues pertaining to sharia law. Muwahidists believe that modern Islam has been mixed with many cultural traditions and they want to change that.
- The Shi'ites believe that just as only God can appoint a prophet, he can appoint a second leader after the prophet. Shi'a Muslims believe that God chose Ali as the leader after Muhammad. About 10-20% of Muslims are Shi'a which means that there are about 120 million world wide. Shi'a Muslims form the majority of Muslims in Iran, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Iraq, and Lebanon. The largest adhab in Yemen is Zaydi Shia. Shias commonly gather for Day of Ashura in Karbala. They accept four hadiths.
- Sunnism considers Abu Bakr to be the successor of Muhammad. Sunnis make up roughly 75% of Muslims. Sunnis believe that leaders of Islam should be chosen by the people of the Muslim world. After Abu Bakr died, Omar took his place, then Uthman, and then Ali. All of them were companions of the Muhammad and lived in Medina. Sunni beliefs are typically based on the Qur'an and the Kutub al-Sittah (six hadiths). Sunnis are sometimes called Bukharists.
- The Sufi are a branch in Islam that focuses more on the spiritual and mystic elements of Islam. Sufis usually conclude their prayers with dhikr recitations.
- The Quraniyoon generally reject the authority of the hadiths. Such Muslims, also known as Quranists and Ahle Quran, believe that the Quran is the sole source of guidance. They say the hadiths are not endorsed by the Quran, and some call them an innovative bid'ah.
- Ibadis are Muslims who originated from the Kharijites. Ibadis today have reformed beliefs from original Kharijites.
- Ahmadiyyas are Muslims who follow Mirza Ghulam Ahmed who they consider to be the mahdi. They are divided into two subgroups; the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community and the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement.
- The Nation of Islam is a denomination in Islam primarily geared towards African Americans.
- The Five-Percent Nation, a denomination predominantly consisting of African-American, also known as Nation of Gods and Earths.
Women in Islam
Women have a great and honoured place in Islam, Quran has a chapter titled "Women" and another chapter titled "Mariam" which is a testament to the importance of women in Quran.
The Wife of Pharoah sought forgiveness and submitted herself to the belief in One God and was mentioned in the Quran for her change in faith and most merciful nature of Allah.
The blessed water well of Zam Zam was created for Hajra the wife of Prophet Ibrahim.
In the muslim pilgrimage of Umrah & Haj the ritual of Safa & Marwa has been included to remember the faith, trust and sacrifices made by a woman "Hajra"
Quran mentions the dress codes for men and women. Dress code is an important aspect to maintain morality in a healthy and sustainable society. For women the dress should cover her body but not necessary to cover their hands and face. Some women even cover their hands and faces, however that is a personal decision to protect their identity. This practice is done only because Muhammad's (pbuh) wives would do it so that nobody would recognize them. For men they must cover themselves from navel to knee in loose garments. Muslim women are not required to cover when they are with their mahrem family members, for example parents, spouses, children, siblings, etc.
Men and women in Islam are required to lower their gaze towards the other gender, unless they are one of the exceptions mentioned above, such as family members.
Quran states clearly a woman's rights before, during and after a marriage and emphasises upon her rights during an unlikely event of divorce.
Quran clarifies the reward and respect of mothers as thrice that of fathers. It mentions that Allah loves men who treat their wives best and are just with them.
Quran states the rights of a woman in all cases of inheritance, so that a women is given her inheritance justly and timely.
In a Marriage if a man fears that his wife is not being loyal or is uprising then Men are instructed to verbally counsel her, if this is not enough then to seperate his bed, if this too doesnt work then he is allowed to cite/indicate (often wrongly misinterpeted as beat) their wives to authorities.
Quran is considered in Islam as a manual to all of humanity and its teachings to be implemented and shared by its readers.
Unfortunately today it is recited but not understood by most Readers.
Some people have responded to these forms of criticism. Montgomery Watt and Norman Daniel say that some of the criticisms are the product of old myths and prejudice. Carl Ernst writes that Islamophobia has played a part in establishing what he calls "myths".
- Ernst, Carl (2004). Following Muhammad: Rethinking Islam in the Contemporary World. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-5577-4.
- Novak, David (February 1999). "The Mind of Maimonides". First Things.
- Sahas, Daniel J. (1997). John of Damascus on Islam: The Heresy of the Ishmaelites. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 978-90-04-03495-2.
- Seibert, Robert F. (1994). "Review: Islam and the West: The Making of an Image (Norman Daniel)". Review of Religious Research 36 (1).
- Warraq, Ibn (2000). The Quest for Historical Muhammad. Prometheus. ISBN 978-1-57392-787-1.
- Warraq, Ibn (2003). Leaving Islam: Apostates Speak Out. Prometheus. ISBN 1-59102-068-9.
- Watt, W. Montgomery (1974). Muhammad: Prophet and Statesman (New ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-881078-4.
- Islam in Indonesia: Contrasting Images and Interpretations, p 68, Kees van Dijk - 2013
- The Shia Imami Ismaili Muslims: A Short Introduction - Page 28, Jimmy R. Davis - 2007
- Miller (2009), pp.4,11
- Mapping the Global Muslim Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim Population: Main Page, Pew Research Center, http://pewforum.org/docs/?DocID=450
- Encyclopædia Britannica, Sunnite
- Miller (2009), p.11
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- Secrets of Islam – U.S. News & World Report. Information provided by the International Population Center, Department of Geography, San Diego State University (2005).
- Miller (2009), pp.15,17
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- "China (includes Hong Kong, Macau, and Tibet)". State.gov. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2006/71338.htm. Retrieved 2009-06-15.
- "NW China region eyes global Muslim market". China Daily. 2008-07-09. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2008-07/09/content_6831389.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
- "Muslim Media Network". Muslim Media Network. 2008-03-24. http://muslimmedianetwork.com/mmn/?p=1922. Retrieved 2009-07-14.
- Secrets of Islam, U.S. News & World Report. Information provided by the International Population Center, Department of Geography, San Diego State University.
"Major Religions of the World Ranked by Number of Adherents". Adherents.com. http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html. Retrieved 2007-01-09.
- "Muslims in Europe: Country guide". BBC News (BBC). 2005-12-23. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4385768.stm. Retrieved 2006-09-28.
- "Religion In Britain". National Statistics. Office for National Statistics. 2003-02-13. http://www.statistics.gov.uk/cci/nugget.asp?id=293. Retrieved 2006-08-27.
- From the article on Sunni Islam in Oxford Islamic Studies Online
- Historical Dictionary of Islamic Fundamentalism - Page 22, Mathieu Guidère - 2012
- Watt (1974), p.231
- Seibert (1994), pp.88-89
- Ernst (2004), p.11
- Muhammad Mohar Ali. "The Biography of the Prophet and the Orientalists".
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