Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis
|First Lady of the United States|
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
|President||John F. Kennedy|
|Preceded by||Mamie Eisenhower|
|Succeeded by||Lady Bird Johnson|
Jacqueline Lee Bouvier
July 28, 1929
Southampton, New York, U.S.
|Died||May 19, 1994 (aged 64)|
New York City, New York, U.S.
|Cause of death||Non-Hodgkin lymphoma|
|Resting place||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Domestic partner||Maurice Tempelsman|
(1980–1994; her death)
|Children||Arabella, Caroline, John Jr., Patrick|
George Washington University (BA)
|Occupation||Socialite, writer, photographer, book editor|
Jacqueline Lee Kennedy Onassis (née Bouvier // BOO-vee-ay; July 28, 1929 – May 19, 1994) was an American socialite, writer, photographer and book editor. As the wife of President John F. Kennedy, she was the First Lady of the United States from 1961 until November 22, 1963. She worked hard for the historical preservation of the White House. She was well known for being fashionable and was a fashion icon.
Jacqueline Lee Bouvier was born on July 28, 1929 in Southampton, New York. In 1951, she graduated from George Washington University and worked for the Washington Times-Herald as a photographer. A year later, she met United States Representative, John F. Kennedy at a dinner party in Washington D.C.
She married John F. Kennedy in 1953, in Newport, Rhode Island. The couple had four children. Jacqueline gave birth to a stillborn girl named Arabella Kennedy in 1956. A year later in 1957 she gave birth to a girl named Caroline Kennedy. After her husband was elected president in the 1960 presidential election, Jacqueline gave birth to a boy named John F. Kennedy Jr. in November 1960. Two months later, at the age of 31, she was the third-youngest First Lady of the United States when her husband was inaugurated as 35th President of the United States on January 20, 1961.
After the assassination and funeral of her husband, Jacqueline and her two children, Caroline Kennedy and John F. Kennedy Jr. retired from public life. In October 1968, she married a wealthy Greek businessman named Aristotle Onassis, which made her less popular. After his death in 1975, she worked as a book editor in New York City. As of today, she is seen as one of the most popular and well known first ladies in American history. In 1999, she was named as one of Gallup's Most-Admired Men and Women of the 20th century. On May 19, 1994, Jacqueline died in her sleep from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in New York. Her funeral was on May 23, 1994. She was later buried next to her husband, President Kennedy, at Arlington National Cemetery.
Early life[change | change source]
Jacqueline Lee Bouvier was born on July 28, 1929 at Stony Brook Southampton Hospital in Southampton, New York to John Vernou Bouvier III and Janet Norton Lee. Her mother's family was from Ireland. Her father's background was French, Scottish, and English. She was raised as a Roman Catholic.
Jacqueline lived in Manhattan and at the Bouvier country home in East Hampton on Long Island during her early childhood. She respected her father and John Vernou Bouvier III called his oldest daughter "the most beautiful daughter a man ever had".
From an early age, Jacqueline was an equestrienne who competed in the sport. She took ballet lessons and learned many languages. She spoke English, French, Spanish, and Italian. In 1935, she began going to Manhattan's Chapin School. One of her teachers called her "a darling child, the prettiest little girl, very clever, very artistic, and full of the devil".
Her parents' marriage became worse because of her father's alcoholism. Her parents had financial problems after the Wall Street Crash of 1929. They separated in 1936 and divorced four years later. In 1942, her mother married lawyer Hugh Dudley Auchincloss Jr.. The family moved into his home in McLean, Virginia.
After seven years at Chapin, Jacqueline Bouvier went to Holton-Arms School in Washington, D.C.. She stayed there from 1942 until 1944. She later went to Miss Porter's School in Farmington, Connecticut. Bouvier stayed there from 1944 to 1947. In 1947, she began studying at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York. She studied in France at the University of Grenoble in Grenoble during her junior year. She also went to the Sorbonne in Paris. She was part of a program from Smith College. She transferred to George Washington University in Washington, D.C. and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in French literature in 1951. She later went to George Washington University to take classes on American history.
While at George Washington University, Jacqueline Bouvier won a twelve-month junior editorship at Vogue magazine. This let her work for six months in the magazine's New York City office and then six months in Paris. She wrote her autobiography, One Special Summer after the trip. After working at Vogue, she worked for the Washington Times-Herald as a part-time receptionist. In 1952, she was briefly engaged to a young stockbroker named John Husted but broke-off the engagement.
Marriage to John F. Kennedy and Children[change | change source]
Jacqueline Bouvier first met United States Representative, John F. Kennedy at a dinner party in May 1952 after journalist, Charles L. Bartlett helped the two meet up. The two had many things in common. They were both Catholic, they both wrote, both liked reading and both had lived outside the United States during college. John was busy running for the United States Senate in Massachusetts when they first met. Their relationship became more serious and he asked her to marry him after he was elected Senator. Bouvier took some time to accept, because she had been asked to report on the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II in London for The Washington Times-Herald. After a month in Europe, she returned to the United States and accepted Kennedy's marriage proposal. Their engagement was officially announced on June 25, 1953.
They were married on September 12, 1953 in Newport, Rhode Island by Boston's Archbishop Richard Cushing. In the first years of their marriage, the couple had many problems. John F. Kennedy was diagnosed with Addison's disease and back pain caused by a war injury. In late 1954, he had surgery on his spine which almost killed him. Jacqueline Kennedy had a miscarriage in 1955 and in August 1956 gave birth to a stillborn daughter, Arabella Kennedy. They lived in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. and Boston, Massachusetts.
Jacqueline gave birth to their daughter, Caroline Kennedy on November 27, 1957. During his Senate re-election campaign, John F. Kennedy began to see how popular his wife was. He asked her to campaign with him for his re-election. In November 1958, Kennedy was re-elected to a second term in the Senate and he thanked his wife for her role in the campaign.
1960 United States presidential election[change | change source]
On January 3, 1960, John F. Kennedy announced his candidacy for president. In the early months of the election year, Jacqueline traveled with her husband to campaign events. Shortly after the campaign began, she became pregnant. So, she decided to stay at home in Georgetown during most of her husband's campaign. She helped her husband's campaign by writing a weekly newspaper column, Campaign Wife. She answered questions and gave interviews to the media.
Jacqueline had a large amount of media attention because of her fashion choices. While this made her popular, some criticized her for being rich. To stop the criticism, Kennedy talked about the amount of work she was doing for the campaign. She also did not want to talk about her fashion choices.
When her husband was at the Democratic National Convention in Los Angeles, Mrs. Kennedy did not go to the convention because of her pregnancy. She was in Hyannis Port where she watched the September 26, 1960 debate between her husband and Republican candidate Vice President Richard Nixon. On November 8, 1960, her husband was elected the 35th President of the United States. A little over two weeks after the election, on November 25, she gave birth to their first son, John F. Kennedy Jr.
First Lady of the United States (1961 – 1963)[change | change source]
John F. Kennedy was inaugurated as the 35th President of the United States on January 20, 1961. Mrs. Kennedy did not want her children to be unprotected around the media at an early age. She stayed with them in Middleburg, Virginia for a short time because of this. She was the first presidential wife to hire a press secretary. She hired Pamela Turnure. The media saw Mrs. Kennedy as the "perfect woman" and she became popular across the world. She also helped get support for the White House and her husband's Cold War policies.
At first, Jacqueline said that her main focus as the first lady was to take care of the President and their children. She later spent her time to support American arts and preservation of its history. The historical restoration of the White House was her well known work. She also hosted many social events at the White House. She wanted to create a Department of the Arts; however this did not happen. She did help create the National Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Humanities.
White House restoration[change | change source]
The First Lady thought that most of the White House needed more historical artifacts and old furniture. Her first major project was to restore the White House. She helped create a family living area by adding a kitchen on the family floor and new rooms for her children. She created a fine arts committee to find the money for her restoration of the White House. She also wanted to redesign and replant most of the Rose Garden and the East Garden. Mrs. Kennedy helped protect historic homes in Lafayette Square in Washington, D.C., because she thought these buildings were important.
Before she became first lady, presidents and their families had taken furniture and other items from the White House when they left office. This was why the White House had few historical items. She wrote letters to find the missing furniture and other historical pieces. Kennedy supported a Congressional bill saying that White House furniture and other items would be the property of the Smithsonian Institution. She also started the White House Historical Association, the Committee for the Preservation of the White House, a Curator of the White House, the White House Endowment Trust, and the White House Acquisition Trust.
On Valentines Day, February 14, 1962, the First Lady took American television viewers on a tour of the White House on CBS News. 56 million television viewers in the United States watched the tour. Kennedy won a special Emmy Award in 1962. She is the only first lady to win an Emmy.
Foreign trips[change | change source]
Mrs. Kennedy made many official visits to other countries, on her own or with the President. In 1961, the Kennedys began their official trip of Europe in France. After arriving in the country, many liked her. French President Charles de Gaulle liked her because she could speak French and because of her knowledge of French history. Seeing how popular she was, President Kennedy joked, "I am the man who accompanied Jacqueline Kennedy to Paris, and I have enjoyed it."
From France, the President and the First Lady traveled to Vienna, Austria, where Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev was asked to shake the President's hand for a photo. He replied, "I'd like to shake her hand first". The U.S. Ambassador to India John Kenneth Galbraith wanted Kennedy to begin a tour in India and Pakistan with her sister Lee Radziwill in 1962. President of Pakistan Ayub Khan gave her a horse named Sardar as a gift. He had found out on his visit to the White House that he and the First Lady both liked horses. Her popularity was compared to former President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Queen Elizabeth II.
Mrs. Kennedy would later travel to other countries across the world representing the United States. The First Lady spoke Spanish well, which she used when traveling to Latin American countries for events.
Death of Patrick Kennedy[change | change source]
In early 1963, Jacqueline Kennedy was again pregnant, with their third child. She spent most of the summer at a home she and the President had rented near the Kennedy Family Compound on Cape Cod, Massachusetts.
On August 7, five weeks before her due date, she went into labor. She gave birth to a boy, Patrick Bouvier Kennedy, through an emergency Cesarean section at the Otis Air Force Base. The baby's lungs were not fully developed, so he was sent to Boston Children's Hospital. He died of hyaline membrane disease two days after birth. Jacqueline was at Otis Air Force Base to recover after Patrick was born. Her husband went to Boston to be with Patrick and was there when Patrick died. On August 14, the President returned to Otis to take her home and gave a speech to thank nurses who had cared for her. As a thank you, Mrs. Kennedy gave the hospital staff gifts from the White House.
The First Lady later had depression after Patrick's death. However, the loss of their child helped the Kennedys' marriage and brought the couple closer together. Before Patrick's death, Kennedy was not close with her husband because of rumors of him cheating on her. It was said that Kennedy had cheated on her with multiple women such as her secretary Pamela Turnure and actress Marilyn Monroe.
Assassination and funeral of John F. Kennedy[change | change source]
On November 21, 1963, the Kennedys went on a political trip to Texas to get more support for her husband's November 1964 re-election campaign. They landed at Dallas's Love Field with Texas Governor John Connally and his wife Nellie. Jacqueline was wearing a bright pink Chanel suit and a pillbox hat, which President Kennedy personally picked for her to wear. A 9.5-mile (15.3 km) motorcade was to take them to the Trade Mart. Kennedy was sitting next her husband in the presidential limousine.
At 12:30 P:M, the motorcade turned to Dealey Plaza. The First Lady heard loud bangs and she thought it was a motorcycle backfiring. She did not realize that it was a gunshot until she heard Governor Connally scream. Two more shots had been fired, three of them hit her husband in the head. She quickly began to climb onto the back of the limousine. Some believe she was reaching across the trunk for a piece of her husband's skull that had been blown off. Secret Service agent Clint Hill ran to the car telling her back to go back to her seat. She would later say that she did not remember climbing behind the car.
Approximately at 1:00 P:M CST in Dallas, Texas at Parkland Hospital, President Kennedy died from his gunshot wounds, aged 46. After her husband died, Kennedy did not want to take off her blood-stained clothing. She told the new first lady, Lady Bird Johnson that she wanted "them to see what they have done to Jack". She continued to wear the blood-stained pink suit as she went on Air Force One. She stood next to Lyndon B. Johnson when he took the oath of office as the 36th President of the United States. The suit was donated to the National Archives and Records Administration in 1964. It will not be seen by the public until 2103 because of an agreement from her daughter Caroline Kennedy, because she refused to let it be seen during this century.
Jacqueline Kennedy planned her husband's state funeral. It was inspired by Abraham Lincoln's funeral. She wanted her husband's casket to be closed, even though her brother-in-law and Attorney General, Robert F. Kennedy wanted it to be open. The funeral service was held at the Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle in Washington D.C. He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery. Many respected her role and appearance at the funeral.
A week after the assassination, President Lyndon B. Johnson wrote an executive order that created the Warren Commission. It was led by Chief Justice Earl Warren to investigate the assassination. Mrs. Kennedy did not care about the investigation. She said that even if they had the right suspect, it would not bring her husband back. She spoke to the commission about the events of her husband's assassination.
After the assassination, Jacqueline Kennedy and her two children left public life and activities.
Life after the assassination (1963 – 1975)[change | change source]
Mourning period and later activities[change | change source]
On November 29, 1963, a week after her husband's assassination, Theodore H. White of Life magazine interviewed Kennedy at her home in Hyannis Port. During the interview, she compared the Kennedy years in the White House to King Arthur's Camelot. She said "Don't let it be forgot, that once there was a spot, for one brief, shining moment that was known as Camelot. There'll be great presidents again ... but there will never be another Camelot". Her husband was nicknamed "Camelot" and his presidency the "Camelot Era" because of this.
Jacqueline Kennedy and her two children stayed in the White House for two more weeks after the assassination. President Lyndon B. Johnson wanted to "do something nice for Jackie". He wanted to make her Ambassador to France, Mexico or the United Kingdom. Kennedy said no to any ambassador roles. Johnson renamed the Florida space center the John F. Kennedy Space Center a week after the assassination. Kennedy later thanked Johnson for his kindness to her.
Jacqueline made few public appearances after her husband's death. Some believed she was suffering from severe post-traumatic stress disorder. In the winter after the assassination, she and the children stayed at Averell Harriman's home in Georgetown. On January 14, 1964, she spoke on television thanking the public for the "hundreds of thousands of messages" she had gotten since the assassination. She bought a house for herself and her children in Georgetown, but sold it later in 1964.[source?] She bought a 15th-floor penthouse apartment for $250,000 at 1040 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan to have more privacy.
Jacqueline would go to a few memorial ceremonies dedicated to her husband. In 1967, she went to the opening ceremony of the U.S. Navy aircraft carrier USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67). She also went to a private ceremony in Arlington National Cemetery when her husband's coffin was moved to build a safer eternal flame. She also was in charge of the creation of the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum.
During the Vietnam War in November 1967, Kennedy was called an unofficial ambassador. This was because of her trip with David Ormsby-Gore to Cambodia. Many historians saw that her visit was to fix the relationship between the two countries. She also went to the funeral of Martin Luther King Jr. in Atlanta, Georgia, in April 1968.
Relationship with Robert F. Kennedy[change | change source]
After her husband's assassination, Kennedy and her children became closer with her brother-in-law Robert F. Kennedy. Kennedy supported him staying in politics. She supported his 1964 campaign for United States senator from New York.
When President Johnson became unpopular, many wanted Senator Kennedy to run for president in 1968. When Art Buchwald asked him if he wanted to run, Robert replied, "That depends on what Jackie wants me to do". She met with him around this time and she told him to run. However, she was worried about his safety.
On June 5, 1968, Sirhan Sirhan shot Senator Kennedy in Los Angeles. Kennedy Onassis went to the hospital to be with Senator Kennedy's wife, Ethel Kennedy, her brother-in-law Ted Kennedy, and the other Kennedy family members. Robert Kennedy died the next day, aged 42.
Marriage to Aristotle Onassis[change | change source]
After Robert Kennedy's death in 1968, Kennedy had depression again. She became worried about her life and of her two children. She said "If they're killing Kennedys, then my children are targets ... I want to get out of this country".
On October 20, 1968, Jacqueline married her long-time friend Aristotle Onassis. He was a rich Greek businessman who was able to give the privacy and security she wanted. They were married on Skorpios, Onassis's private Greek island in the Ionian Sea. After marrying Onassis, she took the legal name Jacqueline Onassis. She lost her right to Secret Service protection when she married Onassis. Many believed that Jacqueline might have been excommunicated by the Roman Catholic church. This was because she married a divorced man. Many did not approve her getting remarried and made her unpopular.
Aristotle Onassis's health became worse after the death of his son Alexander in 1973. He died in 1975. After a legal deal, Jacqueline Onassis got millions of dollars from her step-daughter Christina Onassis.[source?]
Later years, 1975–1990's[change | change source]
Jacqueline Onassis returned to the United States after her second husband died. She lived in Manhattan, Martha's Vineyard, and the Kennedy Compound in Hyannis Port. In 1975, she became an editor at Viking Press. She worked there for two years.
Jacqueline Onassis went to the 1976 Democratic National Convention. This was her first political event in almost ten years. She quit Viking Press in 1977. This was after Viking had published Jeffrey Archer's novel Shall We Tell the President?. The story happens in a fictional future presidency of her brother in-law, Ted Kennedy. The book was about a plan to assassinate him. Two years later, she went to Boston to support Ted Kennedy's 1980 presidential campaign.
After she left Viking Press, Onassis worked for Doubleday. She was an associate editor. Some of the books she edited for the company were Larry Gonick's The Cartoon History of the Universe, the English translation of Naghib Mahfuz's Cairo Trilogy, and autobiographies of ballerina Gelsey Kirkland, singer-songwriter Carly Simon, and fashion icon Diana Vreeland.
In the 1970s, she supported a campaign to save Grand Central Terminal from demolition and repair it. A plaque inside the terminal talks about her role in its preservation. In the 1980s, she supported protests against a planned skyscraper at Columbus Circle that would have created large shadows on Central Park. She also supported saving Olana, the home of Frederic Edwin Church in New York.
Jacqueline Onassis had a lot of press attention. Paparazzi photographer Ron Galella followed her around and took pictures of her without her permission. From 1980 until her death in May 1994, Onassis had a close relationship with businessman Maurice Tempelsman.
In the early 1990s, Jacqueline Onassis supported Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton for president. She donated money to his presidential campaign. After the 1992 presidential election, she met with First Lady Hillary Clinton. They talked about raising a child in the White House. Mrs. Clinton later said that Jacqueline Onassis was an inspiration for her.
Illness and Death[change | change source]
In November 1993, Jacqueline Onassis was thrown from her horse while she was fox hunting in Middleburg, Virginia. She was taken to the hospital. Doctors found a swollen lymph node in her groin. They thought it was an infection at first. The fall made her health worse over the next six months. In December, Onassis had new symptoms such as stomach pain and swollen lymph nodes in her neck. She had non-Hodgkin lymphoma. She began chemotherapy in January 1994. By March, the cancer had spread to her spinal cord and brain. By May, it had spread to her liver. Her condition was terminal.
Jacqueline made her last trip back home from New York Hospital–Cornell Medical Center on May 18, 1994. The next day on May 19, she died in her sleep at her Manhattan apartment, aged 64. Her two children were by her side. Her son John F. Kennedy, Jr. announced her death the next day. He said that she died with her family around her.
On May 23, 1994, her funeral was held and was short and small. Fewer than 100 people were at the 11 minute long funeral.  She was buried at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, Virginia, next to her husband President Kennedy, their son Patrick, and their stillborn daughter Arabella. President Bill Clinton spoke at her graveside service. At the time of her death, her children Caroline Kennedy and John F. Kennedy Jr., her three grandchildren, Rose, Tatiana and John Schlossberg, and sister Lee Radziwill were her living relatives. Her estate was worth $43.7 million.
Honors[change | change source]
In 1994, the Municipal Art Society of New York started the Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Medal. It is given to a person whose work has greatly helped New York City. The White House's East Garden was renamed the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden soon after her husband died. The Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis High School for International Careers was opened in 1995. The main reservoir in Central Park was renamed in her honor.
Legacy[change | change source]
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis is seen as one of the most popular first ladies. She was named 27 times on the annual Gallup list of the top 10 most admired people of the second half of the 20th century. This was more often than any president of the United States listed. In 2014, she came in third place in a Siena College Institute survey as the best first lady. She was behind Eleanor Roosevelt and Abigail Adams in the survey.
Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis is seen as an important first lady in United States history. Many historians feel that First Ladies since Kennedy Onassis have either been compared to or against her.[source?]
Many of her well known clothes are preserved at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Pieces from the collection were shown at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City in 2001.
In 2016, actress Natalie Portman played her in a movie called Jackie about her as first lady and her life after her husband's assassination. Portman was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actress for her acting.
More reading[change | change source]
- Harris, Bill (2012). First Ladies Fact Book -- Revised and Updated: The Childhoods, Courtships, Marriages, Campaigns, Accomplishments, and Legacies of Every First Lady from Martha Washington to Michelle Obama. Black Dog & Leventhal. ISBN 978-1-57912-891-3.
- Heymann, C. David (2007). American Legacy: The Story of John and Caroline Kennedy. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7434-9738-1.
- Heymann, C. David (2009). Bobby and Jackie: A Love Story. Atria Books. ISBN 978-1-4165-5624-4.
- Hunt, Amber; Batcher, David (2014). Kennedy Wives: Triumph and Tragedy in America's Most Public Family. Lyons Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-7627-9634-2.
- Lawrence, Greg (2011). Jackie as Editor: The Literary Life of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-0-312-59193-9.
- Spoto, Donald (2000). Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis: A Life. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-97707-8.
References[change | change source]
- "Photograph". Archived from the original on December 3, 2017. Retrieved December 3, 2017 – via Pinterest.
- Hall, Mimi (September 26, 2010). "Jackie Kennedy Onassis: America's Quintessential Icon of Style and Grace". USA Today. Archived from the original on November 4, 2012. Retrieved February 13, 2011.
- Bachmann, Elaine Rice. "Circa 1961: The Kennedy White House Interiors" (PDF). White House History. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 28, 2011. Retrieved February 13, 2011.
The prescience of her words is remarkable given the influence she ultimately had on fashion, interior decoration, and architectural preservation from the early 1960s until her death in 1994. A disappointing visit to the Executive Mansion when she was 11 left a deep impression, one she immediately acted upon when she knew she was to become first lady ...
- "Life of Jacqueline B. Kennedy". The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved April 6, 2015.
- Newport, Frank; Moore, David W.; Saad, Lydia (December 13, 1999). "Most Admired Men and Women: 1948–1998". Gallup. Archived from the original on November 16, 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2009.
- McFadden, Robert D. (May 20, 1994). "Death of a First Lady; Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Dies of Cancer at 64". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 3, 2001. Retrieved February 9, 2017.
- Leaming, Barbara (2014). Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis: The Untold Story. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. pp. 6–8. ISBN 9781250017642.
- Glueckstein, Fred (October 2004). "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis: Equestrienne" (PDF). Equestrian. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 27, 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
- Harrison, Mimi. "Jackie Kennedy's Prowess as a Polygot". America the Bilingual.
- Mead, Rebecca (April 11, 2011). "Jackie's Juvenilia". The New Yorker.
- "First Lady Biography: Jackie Kennedy". First Ladies' Biographical Information. Retrieved February 21, 2012.
- Onassis, Jacqueline Kennedy; Radziwill, Lee Bouvier (1974). One Special Summer. New York City: Delacorte Press. ISBN 978-0-440-06037-6.
- Spoto, Donald (2000). Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis: A Life. Macmillan. pp. 88–89. ISBN 978-0-312-24650-1 – via Google Books.
- "The Real Reason Jackie Kennedy Married JFK". Reader's Digest. August 2, 2018. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- "Chic Facts About Jackie Kennedy, The President's Widow". Factinate. July 18, 2019. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- "60 Fascinating Facts About The Queen's Coronation". Royal Central. June 1, 2013. Archived from the original on July 17, 2020.
- "Future first lady Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy is born". History. Retrieved June 24, 2021.
- "Senator Kennedy to marry in fall". The New York Times. June 25, 1953. p. 31. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
- "Wedding of Jacqueline Bouvier and John F. Kennedy". jfklibrary.org. John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- "Special Exhibit Celebrates 50th Anniversary of the Wedding of Jacqueline Bouvier and John F. Kennedy". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Archived from the original on February 8, 2009. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- Dallek, Robert. An Unfinished Life: John F. Kennedy, 1917–1963. Back Bay Books, pp. 99–106, 113, 195–197 (2004)
- "Big Year for the Clan". Time. April 26, 1963.
- "Mrs. Kennedy Loses Her Baby". The New York Times. August 24, 1956.
- Thompson, Jonathan (May 29, 2017). "Boston: A tour of the city that JFK called home". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved August 16, 2020.
- Bear, Rob (May 29, 2013). "On His Birthday, Mapping John F. Kennedy's Many Homes". Curbed. Retrieved August 16, 2020.
- "Jackie Kennedy's Campaign Ad Appearance, before the 1960 Presidential Election". iagreetosee.com. Archived from the original on August 21, 2017. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- Wertheime, Molly Meijer (2004). Inventing a Voice: The Rhetoric of American First Ladies of the Twentieth Century.
- Mulvagh, Jane (May 20, 1994). "Obituary: Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis". The Independent.
- "JACQUELINE KENNEDY". Miller Center. October 4, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- "43 Privileged Facts About Jackie Kennedy, The President's Widow". Factinate. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- "Pregnant Jackie Kennedy Was Worried She Couldn't Help JFK Get Elected President". SheKnows. March 2, 2021. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- "Jackie Kennedy in the Early '60s: An American Icon". Life. October 26, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- "John F. Kennedy elected president". History. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- "The Story of the Glen Ora Estate". HouseHistree.com. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
- "Little-known facts about our First Ladies". Firstladies.org. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- "The Public Diplomacy Impact of First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy: 1961 – 1963" (PDF). Connecting Through Culture. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- "Jacqueline Kennedy in the White House". The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- "How Jacqueline Kennedy Transformed the White House and Left a Lasting Legacy". Biography. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- "The White House Historical Association". Maryland.gov. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- "Jacqueline Kennedy". White House History. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- Abbott, James; Rice, Elaine (1997). Designing Camelot: The Kennedy White House Restoration. Thomson. ISBN 978-0-442-02532-8.
- "The Jackie Kennedy White House Tour — A Smash TV Hit". New England Historical Society. February 14, 2019. Retrieved August 4, 2021.
- "25 Stars You Won't Believe Have Emmys". Yahoo. September 19, 2021. Retrieved October 30, 2021.
- "A Year in Paris That Transformed Jacqueline Kennedy". The New York Times. June 23, 2019. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- "Jacqueline Kennedy, Historic Conversations on Life with John F. Kennedy". Bonjour Paris. September 29, 2011. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- "Nation: La Presidente". Time. June 9, 1961. Archived from the original on February 4, 2011. Retrieved June 2, 2010.
- Blair, W. Grainger (June 3, 1961). "Just an Escort, Kennedy Jokes As Wife's Charm Enchants Paris; First Lady Wins Bouquets From Press – She Also Has Brief Chance to Visit Museum and Admire Manet". The New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
- Perry, Barbara A. (2009). Jacqueline Kennedy: First Lady of the New Frontier. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1343-4.
- "Jackie Kennedy adopts Sardar, March 23, 1962". Politico. March 23, 2011.
- Glass, Andrew (March 12, 2015). "Jacqueline Kennedy begins South Asia trip, March 12, 1962". Politico.
- Long, Tania (May 1, 1961). "Ottawa Reacts to Mrs. Kennedy With 'Special Glow of Warmth'; Prime Minister Hails Her at Parliament – Crowds Cheer Her at Horse Show and During Visit to Art Gallery". The New York Times. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
- "Pioneering aide to Jacqueline Kennedy dies". Taipei Times. March 24, 2015.
- Rabe, Stephen G. (1999). The Most Dangerous Area in the World: John F. Kennedy Confronts Communist Revolution in Latin America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-8078-4764-X.
- Clarke, Thurston (July 1, 2013). "A Death in the First Family". Vanity Fair.
- Beschloss, Michael. (2011). Historical Conversations on Life with John F. Kennedy. ISBN 978-1-4013-2425-4.
- Levingston, Steven (October 24, 2013). "For John and Jackie Kennedy, the death of a son may have brought them closer". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
- Flows, Capital. "John F. Kennedy's Final Days Reveal A Man Who Craved Excitement". Forbes. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- Kroth, Jerry; Kroth, Jerome A. (2003). Conspiracy in Camelot. Algora Publishing. ISBN 9780875861968.
- "Women John F. Kennedy is rumored to have had affairs with". IrishCentral.com. May 24, 2017. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- "Exploring JFK's Final Hours In Texas". Keranews. November 8, 2013.
- "JFK SAYS GOODBYE TO FORT WORTH". Library UTA. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- "Jacqueline Kennedy's Smart Pink Suit, Preserved in Memory and Kept Out of View". The New York Times. November 14, 2013. Retrieved May 17, 2021.
- "Changed Motorcade Route in Dallas?". McAdams.mu.edu. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "ANGEL IS AIRBORNE". Washingtonian. Archived from the original on May 18, 2021. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Warren Commission Hearings". Mary Ferrell Foundation. 1964. p. 180.
- "Testimony of Clinton J. Hill, Special Agent, Secret Service". Warren Commission Hearings. Assassination Archives and Research Center. pp. 132–144. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- "Selections from Lady Bird's Diary on the assassination: November 22, 1963". Lady Bird Johnson: Portrait of a First Lady. PBS. Retrieved March 1, 2008.
- Horyn, Cathy (November 14, 2013). "Jacqueline Kennedy's Smart Pink Suit, Preserved in Memory and Kept Out of View". The New York Times. Retrieved December 26, 2014.
- "John F. Kennedy Funeral". White House History. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Burial At Sea: The Odyssey of JFK's Original Casket". Medium. May 30, 2015. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Sarah Sands: The enduring, and very British, appeal of Jackie O". Independent.co.uk. October 23, 2011. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Peters, Gerhard; Woolley, John T. "Lyndon B. Johnson: "Executive Order 11130 – Appointing a Commission To Report Upon the Assassination of President John F. Kennedy," November 29, 1963". The American Presidency Project. University of California – Santa Barbara. Archived from the original on December 4, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Leaming, Barbara (September 30, 2014). "The Winter of Her Despair". Vanity Fair.
- "How Jackie Mourned". Slate. November 21, 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Jackie Kennedy's Post-Assassination Interview With LIFE". Life. December 2, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- White, Theodore H. (December 6, 1963). "For President Kennedy, an Epilogue". Life. Vol. 55, no. 23. ISSN 0024-3019.
- "Kennedy loss in Massachusetts may mark end of 'Camelot' era". AP News. September 2, 2020. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Hunter, Marjorie (December 7, 1963). "Mrs. Kennedy is in new home; declines 3-acre Arlington plot" (PDF). The New York Times. pp. 1, 13. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
- "LBJ and Jackie Kennedy". CBS News. September 18, 1998. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "The story behind a collector's quest for a Cape Kennedy postmark". Linns. April 25, 2020. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Brody, Rachel (January 22, 2015). "A Private Trauma in the Public Eye". U.S. News & World Report.
- Leaming, Barbara (October 28, 2014). Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis: The Untold Story. ISBN 978-1-250-01764-2.
- "Among the Luminaries Honoring Averell Harriman There Was Only One Star, Jackie Kennedy Onassis". Medium. May 2, 2020. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "The making of Jacqueline Kennedy thanks the nation". YouTube. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Heymann, Clemens David (2007). American Legacy: The Story of John & Caroline Kennedy. ISBN 978-0-7434-9738-1.
- Andersen, Christopher P. (2003). Sweet Caroline: Last Child of Camelot. William Morrow. ISBN 978-0-06-103225-7.
- "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis". u-s-history.com. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "May 27, 1967 – Jacqueline, Caroline and John at the christening of the U.S.S. John F. Kennedy". Retrieved November 15, 2014 – via YouTube.
- "JFK's body moved to permanent gravesite". HISTORY.com. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Commemorating Camelot: Three Women Who Shaped JFK's Legacy". NPS. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Jacqueline Kennedy Visits Angkor Wat". Devata.org. January 6, 2010. Archived from the original on March 24, 2010. November 1967
- Little, Harriet Fitch (March 21, 2015). "Jacqueline Kennedy's charm offensive". The Phnom Penh Post.
- "Jackie Kennedy And Coretta Scott King At MLK's Funeral". Huffpost. April 5, 2013. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Jackie Kennedy's Personal Assistant Recalls Jackie's Special Relationship with Bobby Kennedy". Country Living. May 22, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Robert F. Kennedy Was Killed While Campaigning for President. Here's What Drove Him to Run". Time. June 5, 2018. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Art Buchwald Interview" (PDF). John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Morriss, John G. (June 6, 1968). "Kennedy claims victory; and then shots ring out". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- "Robert F. Kennedy's Final Flight". The Washington Post. June 3, 2018. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Hill, Gladwin (June 6, 1968). "Kennedy is Dead, Victim of Assassin; Suspect, Arab Immigrant, Arraigned; Johnson Appoints Panel on Violence". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 26, 2016. Retrieved December 29, 2015.
- Seely, Katherine (July 19, 1999). "John F. Kennedy Jr., Heir to a Formidable Dynasty". The New York Times. Retrieved November 8, 2009.
- "Jackie Kennedy Went From Grieving Widow to Tycoon Wife: Inside Her Marriage to Aristotle Onassis". Closer Weekly. March 10, 2021. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "First Ladies, Secret Service Protection & Their Codenames". First Ladies. May 21, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Cardinal Claims Excommunication Idea 'Nonsense,' in Talk about Jackie Kennedy". The Southeast Missourian. October 23, 1968 – via Google News.
- "Roman Catholics: The Cardinal and Jackie". Time. November 1, 1968. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
- "These Iconic Photos Will Take You Inside Jackie Kennedy's Marriage to Aristotle Onassis". Cheat Sheet. October 26, 2018. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Alexander Onassis, Only Son Of the Magnate, Dies of Injuries". The New York Times. January 24, 1973. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "March 15th 1975: Aristotle Onassis passes away". Greek City Times. March 15, 2020. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Jackie Sues Indians In Martha's Vineyard Over A Beach". Chicago Tribune. January 23, 1989.
- "Jackie Onassis Blue-Pencils Her Job at Viking Press". The Washington Post. October 15, 1977. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Peter Tufo Lee Radziwill her son Anthony and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis at the 1976 Democratic National Convention in New York". WWD. August 26, 2008. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Carmody, Deirdre (October 15, 1977). "Mrs. Onassis Resigns Editing Post". The New York Times. p. 1. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved November 28, 2019.
- "Kennedy Declares His Candidacy, Vowing New Leadership for Nation". The New York Times. November 8, 1979. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Jackie O, Working Girl". Vanity Fair. January 4, 2011. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "History, Jackie O and Comix". Pulisher's Weekly. September 16, 2002. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "Hutchins mss., 1972–1999". Indiana University.
- "Once an Editor, Now the Subject". The New York Times.
- "Jackie O.: A Life in Books". oprah.com. Retrieved January 11, 2015.
- Adler, Bill (April 13, 2004). The Eloquent Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis – A Portrait in Her Own Words. Vol. 1. ISBN 978-0-06-073282-0.
- Schuyler, David (2018). Frederic Church's Olana on the Hudson: Art, Landscape, and Architecture. Hudson, New York: Rizzoli International Publications/The Olana Partnership. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-8478-6311-2.
- "1040 Fifth Avenue: Jackie O's Unusual New York City Neighbor". Vanity Fair. October 16, 2013. Retrieved August 16, 2020 – via YouTube.
- "Ron Galella". Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved August 16, 2020.
- "The Last Love of Jackie Kennedy Onassis". Town and Country Magazine. May 16, 2019. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Lewis, Kathy (August 25, 1993). "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Reaches Out To President Clinton – She Ends Long Political Isolation". The Seattle Times.
- Kolbert, Elizabeth (October 13, 2003). "The Student: How Hillary Clinton set out to master the Senate". The New Yorker. Retrieved November 16, 2015.
- Clinton, Hillary Rodham (April 19, 2004). Living History by Hillary Clinton. ISBN 9780743222259. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- "A fall while foxhunting marks the beginning of the end of Jackie O". Today. April 13, 2004. Retrieved December 3, 2017.
- "Jackie Kennedy's Battle With Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma". Lymphoma News Today. February 23, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
- Altman, Lawrence K. (May 20, 1994). "Death of a first lady; No More Could Be Done, Mrs. Kennedy-Onassis Was Told". The New York Times. Retrieved June 24, 2011.
- "JFK Jr. speaks to the press outside of ..." Retrieved December 20, 2017 – via YouTube.
- Apple, Jr., R. W. (May 24, 1994). "Death of a First Lady: The Overview; Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Is Buried". The New York Times. p. A1.
- Horvitz, Paul F. (May 24, 1994). "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Laid to Rest at Eternal Flame". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 2, 2009. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- McFadden, Robert D. (May 20, 1994). "On This Day – Death of a First Lady ; Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Dies of Cancer at 64". The New York Times. Retrieved March 8, 2020.
- Johnston, David Cay (December 21, 1996). "Mrs. Onassis's Estate Worth Less Than Estimated". The New York Times. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis Medal". Municipal Art Society. Archived from the original on November 24, 2010.
- "Mrs. Johnson Dedicates the Jacqueline Kennedy Garden". White House Historical Association.
- "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis High School". New York City Department of Education. Archived from the original on August 4, 2020. Retrieved August 16, 2020.
- Kifner, John (July 23, 1994). "Central Park Honor for Jacqueline Onassis". The New York Times. Retrieved August 15, 2012.
- "Jackie Kennedy's Enduring Spell". National Geographic Channel. October 15, 2013. Archived from the original on January 25, 2016. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
- "Survey: The best of the first ladies". CNN. February 15, 2014.
- Miller, Jake (February 15, 2014). "Who is the finest first lady of them all?". CBS News.
- "Poll: Roosevelt seen as top first lady". Politico. February 15, 2014.
- "1962: Jacqueline Kennedy". Time. March 5, 2020. Retrieved March 6, 2020.
- "Who will the next first lady (or first gentleman) of the US be?". aol.com. January 30, 2016.
- Greenhouse, Emily (August 17, 2015). "Vitamins & Caviar: Getting to Know Melania Trump". Bloomberg Politics. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
- "FIRST LADY JACQUELINE KENNEDY CLOTHING". John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
- "JACQUELINE KENNEDY: THE WHITE HOUSE YEARS". The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved April 11, 2016.
- Lee Adams, William (April 2, 2012). "All-TIME 100 Fashion Icons: Princess Diana". Time. Retrieved February 1, 2017.
- Boyd, Sara (March 14, 2016). "10 Fashion Icons and the Trends They Made Famous". Forbes.
- Dargis, Manohla (December 1, 2016). "'Jackie': Under the Widow's Weeds, a Myth Marketer". The New York Times.
- "Oscar Nominations: Complete List". Variety. January 24, 2017. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
Other websites[change | change source]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to:|
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis|
- Life of Jacqueline B. Kennedy at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum
- Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy at the White House
- Jacqueline Kennedy at C-SPAN's First Ladies: Influence & Image
- Jackie Kennedy at the National First Ladies' Library
- The Last Will and Testament of Jacqueline K. Onassis
- Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis on IMDb
- Appearances on C-SPAN