Map of Japanese provinces (1868
) with Kōzuke Province highlighted
Kōzuke Province (上野国 Kōzuke no kuni) was an old province of Japan in the area of Gunma Prefecture on the island of Honshū. It is also known as Jōshū (上州) or Jōmō (上毛).
The ancient capital city of the province was near Maebashi.
View of Kōzuke Province, woodblock print by Hiroshige
In the Nara period, Kōzuke was part of Keno Province. This was changed in the reforms of the Taihō Code in 701.
In the Meiji period, the provinces of Japan were converted into prefectures. The maps of Japan and Kōzuke Province were reformed in the 1870s.
Ichinomiyanukisaki jinja was the chief Shinto shrine (ichinomiya) of Kōzuke. 
Media related to Kozuke Province at Wikimedia Commons