A kafir, pronounced as, "kaafir", is someone who does not believe in God according to Islam. It is the most common description used in the Qur'an for non-believers or non-Muslims. They are also mentioned especially in the Quran in the Sura (chapter) Kafirun. Jews and Christians were required to pay the jizya while others, depending on the different rulings of the four Madhhabs, might be required to accept Islam, pay the jizya, be exiled, or be killed.
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- Willis, John Ralph, ed. (2018) . "Glossary". Studies in West African Islamic History, Volume 1: The Cultivators of Islam (1st ed.). London and New York: Routledge. p. 197. ISBN 9781138238534.
Kufr: Unbelief; non-Muslim belief (Kāfir = a non-Muslim, one who has received no Dispensation or Book; Kuffār plural of Kāfir).
- Glasse, Cyril (1989). The New Encyclopedia of Islam (Revised 2001 ed.). New York: Altamira Press. p. 247. ISBN 978-0759101890.
- Michael Bonner (2008). Jihad in Islamic History. Princeton University Press. pp. 89–90. ISBN 978-1400827381.
To begin with, there was no forced conversion, no choice between "Islam and the Sword". Islamic law, following a clear Quranic principle (2:256), prohibited any such things [...] although there have been instances of forced conversion in Islamic history, these have been exceptional.
- Waines (2003) "An Introduction to Islam" Cambridge University Press. p. 53
- Winter, T. J., & Williams, J. A. (2002). Understanding Islam and the Muslims: The Muslim Family Islam and World Peace. Louisville, Kentucky: Fons Vitae. p. 82. ISBN 978-1-887752-47-3. Quote: The laws of Muslim warfare forbid any forced conversions, and regard them as invalid if they occur.
- Ira M. Lapidus. Islamic Societies to the Nineteenth Century: A Global History. p. 345.
- "Islam". Encyclopedia Britannica. New York. 17 August 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2022.