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Kalinga fought against the Maurya Empire in 261 BC. The Maurya Empire was led by Ashoka. The effects of the war were described by Ashoka in Major Rock Edict 13. About 150,000 people were killed during this war.
Kalinga was an important port for trade because it was easy to reach Southeast Asia from there. Kalinga again became an independent state after the death of Ashoka. In Sangam literature, it is mentioned that Kharvela of Kalinga tried to invade north India against Pushyamitra, the founder of the Sunga Dynasty, but there is no clear evidence of that. The Sunga Dynasty was founded just after the Mauryan.