Kingdom of Urartu

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Kingdom of Urartu
māt Urarṭu (Assyrian)
Urashtu (Babylonian)
אֲרָרָט, Ararat (Hebrew)
860 BC–590 BC
Urartu during Sarduri II, 743 BC
Urartu during Sarduri II, 743 BC
Capital
  • Sugunia
  • Arzashkun
  • Tushpa (after 832 BC)
Common languagesUrartian
Proto-Armenian
Religion
Urartian polytheism
GovernmentMonarchy
King 
• 858–844
Arame (first)
• 590–585
Rusa IV (last)
History 
• Established
860 BC
• Median conquest
590 BC

Kingdom of Urartu (Assyrian: māt Urarṭu, Babylonian: Urashtu, Hebrew: אֲרָרָט, romanized: Ararat), was an Iron Age kingdom. Territory of the ancient Kingdom of Urartu extended over the modern frontiers of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and the Republic of Armenia. Its center was the Armenian highland between Lake Van, Lake Urmia, and Lake Sevan.[1] During the seventh century, the Urartians collaborated with a combination of Scythians and Cimmerians in their jockeying for power, but by 590, having been weakened in the constant rivalry between Assyrians, Babylonians, Scythians, and Medes, Urartu was swallowed by the Medes.[2]

Urartu and Armenians[change | change source]

Armenians are the heirs of the Urartians.[3] A. E. Redgate says that the Urartians are the "most easily identifiable" ancestors of the Armenians.[4] Philip D. Curtin defined the Kingdom of Urartu as an Armenian kingdom.[5]

Maps[change | change source]

Map Year
Urartu 860 840-en.svg 860–840 BC
Urartu 820 785-en.svg 820–785 BC
Urartu 785 753-en.svg 785–753 BC
Urartu 743 735-en.svg 745–735 BC
Urartu 743-en.svg 743 BC
Urartu 735 715-en.svg 735–715 BC
Urartu 713 680-en.svg 713–680 BC
Urartu 680 610-en.svg 680–610 BC
Urartu 610 585-en.svg 610–585 BC

References[change | change source]

  1. Kleiss 2008.
  2. Jacobson 1995, p. 33.
  3. Frye 1984, p. 73.
  4. Redgate 2000, p. 5.
  5. Curtin 1984, p. 185.

Sources[change | change source]

  • Kleiss, Wolfram (2008). "URARTU IN IRAN". Encyclopædia Iranica. The territory of the ancient kingdom of Urartu extended over the modern frontiers of Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and the Republic of Armenia. Its center was the Armenian highland between Lake Van, Lake Urmia, and Lake Sevan.
  • Jacobson, Esther (1995). The Art of the Scythians: The Interpenetration of Cultures at the Edge of the Hellenic World. BRILL. p. 33. ISBN 90-04-09856-9. During the seventh century, the Urartians collaborated with a combination of Scythians and Cimmerians¹² in their jockeying for power, but by 590, having been weakened in the constant rivalry between Assyrians, Babylonians, Scythians, and Medes, Urartu was swallowed by the Medes.
  • Frye, Richard N (1984). The History of Ancient Iran. Munich: C.H. Beck. pp. 73. ISBN 978-3406093975. The real heirs of the Urartians, however, were neither the Scythians nor Medes but the Armenians.
  • Redgate, A. E (2000). The Armenians. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 5. ISBN 978-0631220374. However, the most easily identifiable ancestors of the later Armenian nation are the Urartians.
  • Curtin, Philip D. (1984). Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. Cambridge University Press. pp. 185. ISBN 978-0-521-26931-5. At least three times in history, Armenians rose to unusual territorial power. The first was in the ninth to the sixth century B.C., where the Armenian kingdom of Urartu was an important stopping point for trade between Asia and the Mediterranean world.