Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky  5 September 1857 – 19 September 1935) was a Russian who pioneered spaceflight. When Konstantin was young, he had scarlet fever; because of that he had some problems with hearing and had to study by himself. he became a schoolteacher and, in his spare time, studied and wrote about spaceflight.
In 1903, he wrote Means of Reaction Devices (in Russian: Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами), which was the first serious study on how to use rockets to launch spacecraft. He calculated the speed needed to reach orbit around the Earth (at 8 km/s). He also wrote that a multi-stage rocket, using liquid fuel could reach that speed. He recommended liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, though other fuels could be used. He was correct on these points.
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- Russian: Russian: Константи́н Эдуа́рдович Циолко́вский, Polish: Konstanty Ciołkowski
- Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky – Soviet Space Scientist. From San Diego Aerospace Museum Educational Materials