Kurdistan (state)

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Kurdistan (Kurdish: کوردستان or Kurdistan), is a imaginary state that the Kurdish nationalists want to be established in the Kurdish-dominated regions. Kurdish population is estimated to be between 36.4 and 45.6 million.

Republic of Kurdistan
Komâre Kurdistan (Kurmanji)
کۆماری کوردستان (Sorani)
Flag of
Flag of Kurds
Emblem of Kurds of
Emblem of Kurds
Motto: ئازادی یان ئازادی, "An azadî, an azadî" (Kurdish)
(English: "Either freedom, or freedom")
Anthem: ئەی ڕەقیب, "Ey Reqîb" (Kurdish)
(English: "O Enemy")
Map of Kurdistan claimed by Kurdish nationalists
Map of Kurdistan claimed by Kurdish nationalists
CapitalErbil (de facto)a
Kirkuk[1] (de jure)a
Official languagesKurdisha[2]
Recognized languagesa[3]
  • Arabic
  • Assyrian
  • Turkmen[a]
Religion
Secular statea
Government
• President
Nechirvan Barzania
• Prime Minister
Masrour Barzania
• Deputy Prime Minister
Qubad Talabania
a in Kurdistan Region of Iraq

The Corduene is ancient name of Kurdistan.[4][5]

List of presidents[change | change source]

Portrait Name Years Loyality Party
Sheikh Mahmoud - Kurdistan's King (1918-1922).jpg Mahmud Barzanji 1922–1924 Kingdom of Kurdistan
N/A Ibrahim Haski 1927–1930 Republic of Ararat Khoyboun
Qazi Muhammad.jpg Qazi Muhammad 1946–1946 Republic of Mahabad Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan
PUK/KDP
Portrait Name Years Loyality Party
Talabani Sept05.jpg Jalal Talabani 1992–2005 Kurdistan Region Patriotic Union of Kurdistan
Masoud Barzani February 2015.jpg Massoud Barzani 1992–2005 Kurdistan Region Kurdistan Democratic Party
Portrait Name Years Loyality Party
Masoud Barzani February 2015.jpg Massoud Barzani 2005–2017 Kurdistan Region Kurdistan Democratic Party
Nechirvan Barzani meets with Ali Shamkhani, Tehan 21 January 2018 (29915) (cropped).jpg Nechirvan Barzani 2019– Kurdistan Region Kurdistan Democratic Party

Official status[change | change source]

  • Flag of Kurdistan.svg Kurdistan Region (1992) – It is an autonomous region[6] in Iraq.
  • De facto SA-NES Flag.svg Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria[b] (2013) – It is an autonomous region in Syria.

Flag[change | change source]

The flag of Kurdistan (Kurdish: ئاڵای کوردستان, Alaya Kurdistanê) is the flag of Kurds[12][13][14] and created by the Society for the Rise of Kurdistan in 1920. It would later, in different variants, be adopted as the national flag of different Kurdish states including Republic of Ararat, Republic of Mahabad and most recently by Kurdistan Region in 1992. Moreover, the Kingdom of Kurdistan used the crescent flag which was also considered a Kurdish flag.[14]

Flag of Kurdistan

References[change | change source]

  1. Constitution of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region,
    Article 5:

    The city of Kirkuk shall be the capitol of the Kurdistan Region.

  2. Constitution of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region,
    Article 7:

    i) Kurdish shall be the official language of the Kurdistan Region.

  3. Constitution of the Iraqi Kurdistan Region,
    Article 7:

    ii) Official correspondence with the federal and regional authorities shall be in both Arabic and Kurdish.

    iii) The teaching of Arabic in the Kurdistan Region shall be compulsory.

    iv) The Turkmen language shall be considered the language of education culture for the Turkmen in addition to the Kurdish language. Syriac shall be the language of education and culture for those who speak it in addition to the Kurdish language.

  4. N. Maxoudian, "Early Armenia as an Empire: The Career of Tigranes III, 95–55 BC", Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society, Vol. 39, Issue 2, April 1952, pp. 156–163.
  5. A.D. Lee, The Role of Hostages in Roman Diplomacy with Sasanian Persia, Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte, Vol. 40, No. 3 (1991), pp. 366–374 (see p.371)
  6. "Iraq's Constitution of 2005" (PDF). 2005. Retrieved 31 August 2019.
  7. Lister (2015), p. 154.
  8. Allsopp & van Wilgenburg (2019), p. 89.
  9. "'Rojava' no longer exists, 'Northern Syria' adopted instead". Kurdistan24.
  10. "Turkey's military operation in Syria: All the latest updates". al Jazeera. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
  11. "The Communist volunteers fighting the Turkish invasion of Syria". Morning Star. 31 October 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
  12. "The National Flag of Kurdistan"., Kurdish Institute of Paris.
  13. Hamit, Bozarslan (2021). The Cambridge History of the Kurds. Cambridge University Press. p. 5.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Veroj, Sêid (17 December 2021). "Seîd Veroj/ Ala Kurdistanê; berhemê têkoşîna netewî ya miletê Kurd e û berê sed (100) sal hatîye çêkirin". Kovara Bîr (in Kurdish). Retrieved 28 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)

Sources[change | change source]

  • Lister, Charles R. (2015). The Syrian Jihad: Al-Qaeda, the Islamic State and the Evolution of an Insurgency. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-046247-5.
  • Allsopp, Harriet; van Wilgenburg, Wladimir (2019). The Kurds of Northern Syria. Volume 2: Governance, Diversity and Conflicts. London; New York City; etc.: I.B. Tauris.
  • Watts, Nicole F. (2010a). Activists in Office: Kurdish Politics and Protest in Turkey (Studies in Modernity and National Identity). Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-295-99050-7. The overwhelming majority of voters supporting pro-Kurdish candidates came from thirteen provinces: Ağri, Bingöl, Bitlis, Diyarbakır, Hakkari, Mardin, Muş, Siirt, Tunceli, Van, Batman, Șırnak, and Igdır. In all these provinces the population is at least 50 percent Kurdish (...)
  • Watts, Nicole F. (2010b). Activists in Office: Kurdish Politics and Protest in Turkey (Studies in Modernity and National Identity). Seattle: University of Washington Press. p. 167. ISBN 978-0-295-99050-7. In addition, provinces with sizeable Kurdish minorities such as Urfa (where about 47 percent of the population is estimated to be Kurdish) and Kars (about 20 percent Kurdish) (...)
  • Courbage, Youssef; Todd, Emmanuel (2011). A Convergence of Civilizations: The Transformation of Muslim Societies Around the World. Columbia University Press. pp. 74. Kurds are also a majority of the population in the provinces of Kermanshah, West Azerbaijan, and Ilam.

Notes[change | change source]

  1. The written language of the Iraqi Turkmen is based on Istanbul Turkish using the modern Turkish alphabet.
  2. The name "Rojava" ("The West") was initially used by the region's PYD-led government, before its usage was dropped in 2016.[7][8][9] Since then, the name is still used by locals and international observers.[10][11]