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From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
RegionWestern Punjab region
Shahmukhi alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-2lah
ISO 639-3lah

Lahnda, also known as Lehndi or Western Punjabi,[3] is a group of Punjabi dialects and varieties,[4][2] within the north-western Indo-Aryan language family. It is spoken in Pakistan and India,[5][6] which originates in areas of western Punjab region, as well as in Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Saraiki and Hindko are often grouped in the Lahnda dialects. When the partition of India occurred in 1947, many speakers of Lahnda varieties migrated to areas of eastern Punjab in India. Today the dialects of Lahnda spoken in both Pakistan and India are mixed in origin.[7][8]

Varieties[change | change source]

Lahnda includes the following varieties:

  • Saraiki (spoken mostly in southern Pakistani Punjab by about 26 million people)
  • Hindko (almost five million speakers in north-western Punjab and neighbouring regions of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, especially Hazara)
  • Pahari/Pothwari (3.5 million speakers in the Pothohar region of Punjab, Azad Kashmir and parts of Indian Jammu and Kashmir)
  • Jhangochi (spoken in central areas of Pakistani Punjab, transitional with Majhi)
  • Shahpuri (spoken in central-western areas of Pakistani Punjab, transitional with Majhi)
  • Dhani (spoken in central-western parts of Pakistani Punjab, transitional with Majhi)
  • Khetrani (20,000 speakers in Balochistan)

Ethnologue also adds the Majhi dialects transitional between Lahnda and Eastern Punjabi; these are spoken by about 66 million people.[9][10]

References[change | change source]

  1. "Siraiki: Language or Dialect?". www.researchgate.net.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Shackle, Christopher (2010). "Lahnda". In Brown, Keith; Ogilvie, Sarah (eds.). Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World. Oxford: Elsevier. ISBN 9780080877754.
  3. Zograph, G. A. (2023). "Chapter 3". Languages of South Asia: A Guide (Reprint ed.). Taylor & Francis. p. 52. ISBN 9781000831597. LAHNDA – Lahnda (Lahndi) or Western Panjabi is the name given to a group of dialects spread over the northern half of Pakistan. In the north, they come into contact with the Dardic languages with which they share some common features, In the east, they turn gradually into [Eastern/Central] Panjabi, and in the south into Sindhi. In the south-east there is a clearly defined boundary between Lahnda and Rajasthani, and in the west a similarly well-marked boundary between it and the Iranian languages Baluchi and Pushtu. The number of people speaking Lahnda can only be guessed at: it is probably in excess of 20 million.
  4. "Siraiki: Language or Dialect?". www.researchgate.net.
  5. "Lahnda language | Punjabi, Saraiki & Hindko | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2024-01-03.
  6. "Lahnda | Ethnologue Free". Ethnologue (Free All). Retrieved 2024-01-03.
  7. Hardev Bahri (2005). ਲਹਿੰਦੀ ਕੋਸ਼ (in Punjabi). Patiala: Publication Bureau, Punjabi University. ISBN 978-81-7380-985-9. LCCN 2005322199. OCLC 607742428. OL 31642732M. Wikidata Q113574700.
  8. Harnam Singh Harlaaj (2019), ਲਹਿੰਦੀ ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦਾ ਸ਼ਬਦ ਕੋਸ਼ (in Punjabi), Wikidata Q112031596
  9. Lahnda at Ethnologue (26th ed., 2023) closed access
  10. Shackle 1979, p. 198.