List of Iranic states, dynasties, empires and countries

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of Iranic states, dynasties and empires. The Iranics consist of Persians, Medes, Khwarezmians,[1] Sakas,[2] Dahaeans, Scythians,[3] Kurds,[4] Bactrians, Pashtuns, Tajiks, Balochs, Parthians, Sogdians,[5] Sarmatians, Talyshs, Tats, Cimmerians,[6] Alans,[7] Ossetians, along with others.

Historical Iranic states, dynasties and empires[change | change source]

Historical[change | change source]

Years Notes Map (greatest extent)
Achaemenid Kingdom 730 BC–549 BC Of Persian origin.
Medes ca. 678 BC–549 BC Of Median origin.
Achaemenid Empire 550 BC–330 BC Of Persian origin.
Indo-Scythians 200 BC–400 AD Of Scythian origin.
Parthian Empire 247 BC–224 AD The dynasy belgonged to Parni tribe, an Iranic tribe.
  • Atropatene (320s BC–3rd century AD) – Of Iranic origin.
  • Kingdom of Cappadocia (320s BC–17 AD) – Hellenistic-era kingdom, ruling class was of Iranic origin.
  • Indo-Parthian Kingdom (12 BC–before 100 AD) – Of Parthian origin.
  • Sasanian Empire (224 AD–651 AD) – Of Persian origin.
  • Chosroid dynasty (284 AD–807 AD) – Of Parthian origin.
  • Afrighids (305 AD–995 AD) – Of Khwarezmian origin.
  • Mihranids (330 AD–821 AD) – Of Parthian[8] origin.
  • Dabuyids (642 AD–760 AD) – Of Iranic origin.
  • Bavandids (651 AD–1349 AD) – Of Iranic origin.
  • Sadakiyans* (770 AD–827 AD) – Of Kurdish origin.
  • Rustamids (777 AD–909 AD) – Of Persian origin.
  • Tahirids* (821 AD–873 AD) – Of Persian origin.[9]
  • Banijurids (r. 848 AD–908 AD) – Of Iranic origin.
  • Ghurids* (before 879 AD–1215 AD) – Of probably Tajik[10][11] origin.
  • Saffarids (861 AD–1003 AD) – Of Persian[12][13][14][15] origin.
  • Farighunids (9th-century AD–1010 AD) – Of Iranic origin.
  • Sajids (889 AD–929 AD) – Of Sogdian[16] origin.
  • Samanids* (819 AD–999 AD) – Of Iranic[17] origin.
  • Musafirids (919 AD–1062 AD) – Of Daylamite[18] origin.
  • Ziyarids (931 AD–1090 AD) – Of Gilak origin.
  • Ilyasids (932 AD–968 AD) – Of Sogdian origin.
  • Buyids (934 AD–1062 AD) – Of Daylamite[19] origin.
  • Shaddadids (951 AD–1199 AD) – Of Kurdish[20][21][22] origin.
  • Rawwadids* (955 AD–1070/1116 AD) –They were Arab origin, later Kurdicized.[23]
  • Hasanuyids (959 AD–1015 AD) – Of Kurdish[22] origin.
  • Marwanids (983/990 AD–1085 AD) – Of Kurdish[24][22][25] origin.
  • Annazids (990/991 AD–1117 AD) – Of Kurdish[26][22] origin.
  • Ma'munids (995 AD–1017 AD) – Of Iranic[27] origin.
  • Kakuyids (1008 AD–1141 AD) – Of Daylamite[28] origin.
  • Hazaraspids (1115 AD–1424 AD) – Of Kurdish[29] origin.
  • Atabegs of Yazd (1141 AD–1319 AD) – Of Persian[30] origin.
  • Ayyubids* (1171 AD–1260/1341 AD) – Saladin, the founder of the dynasty, was a Kurd.[31][32][33]
  • Khorsidi dynasty (1184 AD–1597 AD) – Of Kurdish origin.
  • Kartids[a] (1244 AD–1381 AD) – Of Tajik[34] origin.
  • Pervâneoğlu (1261-1326) – Founder of the dynasty, Muin al-Din Sulayman Parwana, was of Persian origin.[35]
  • Afrasiyab dynasty (1349 AD–1504 AD) – Of Iranic[36] origin.
  • Lodi dynasty* (1451 AD–1526 AD) – Of Pashtun (Afghan) origin.
  • Emirate of Palu (1495–1850) of Kurdish origin.
  • Safavid dynasty* (1501 AD–1722/1736 AD) – The dynasty was partly or wholly of Kurdish origin.[37][38][39]
  • Baban (16th century–1850) – Of Kurdish origin.
  • Sur Empire (1538 AD–1556 AD) – Of Pashtun (Afghan) origin.
  • Karrani dynasty (1564 AD–1576 AD) – Of Pashtun (Afghan) origin.
  • Hotak Empire (1709 AD–1738 AD) – The dynasty was founded by the Pashtun[40] Ghiji tribe.
  • Durrani Empire (1747 AD–1823 AD/1839 AD–1842 AD) – The dynasty was founded by the Pashtun[41] Durrani tribe.
  • Zand dynasty (1751 AD–1794 AD) – The dynasty was founded by Karim Khan Zand, member of the Zand tribe, a branch of Lurs.[42][43][44][45][46]
  • Barakzai dynasty (1823–1973) – The dynasty was founded by Pashtun[47] Barakzai tribe.
  • Pahlavi dynasty (1925 AD–1979 AD) – The dynasty was founded by Reza Shah of Mazanderani[48][49] and Georgian descent.

Former and defunct Iranic governments[change | change source]

  • Persian Soviet Socialist Republic (1920–1921)
  • Kingdom of Kurdistan (1921–1924/1925)
  • South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast (1922–1990)
  • Republic of Ararat (1927–1931)
  • Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (1929–1991)
  • North Ossetian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (1936–1992)
  • Republic of Mahabad (1946–1946)
  • Republic of Afghanistan (1973–1978)
  • Democratic Republic of Afghanistan[b] (1978–1992)
  • Republic of Laçin (1992–1992)
  • Talysh-Mughan Autonomous Republic (1993–1993)

Present-day Iranic countries[change | change source]

Iran Tajikistan Afghanistan South Ossetia
Flag
Flag of Iran.svg
Flag of Tajikistan.svg
de jure:
Flag of Afghanistan (2004–2021).svg

de facto:
Flag of the Taliban.svg
Flag of South Ossetia.svg
Map Iran on the globe (Iran centered).svg Tajikistan on the globe (Eurasia centered).svg Afghanistan on the globe (Afro-Eurasia centered).svg South Ossetia on the globe (Europe centered).svg
Capital Tehran Dushanbe Kabul Tskhinvali
Politicial system Unitary theocratic Islamic republic Unitary presidential republic under a dictatorship de jure:
Unitary presidential Islamic republic
de facto:
Unitary totalitarian provisional theocratic Islamic emirate
Unitary semi-presidential republic
Population (2022 est.) 86,758,304 9,119,347 38,346,720 56,520
Area 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi) 652,867 km2 (252,073 sq mi) 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi) 3,900 km2 (1,500 sq mi)

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Also known as Kart, Kert or Kurt dynasty.
  2. Its name was changed to the Republic of Afghanistan in 1987.

References[change | change source]

  1. Diakonoff 1985, p. 48: "The majority of the “Eastern” Iranic tribes – Scythians, Alani, Massagetae, Sakas, Chorasmians, Sogdians – remained on the territory of south-eastern Europe and in Central Asia."
  2. Diakonoff 1985, p. 48: "The majority of the “Eastern” Iranic tribes – Scythians, Alani, Massagetae, Sakas, Chorasmians, Sogdians – remained on the territory of south-eastern Europe and in Central Asia."
  3. Ivantchik 2018: "SCYTHIANS, a nomadic people of Iranic origin (...)"
    Harmatta 1996, p. 181: "[B]oth Cimmerians and Scythians were Iranic peoples."
    Sulimirski 1985, pp. 149–153: "During the first half of the first millennium B.C., c. 3,000 to 2,500 years ago, the southern part of Eastern Europe was occupied mainly by peoples of Iranic stock [...] [T]he population of ancient Scythia was far from being homogeneous, nor were the Scyths themselves a homogeneous people. The country called after them was ruled by their principal tribe, the "Royal Scyths" (Her. iv. 20), who were of Iranic stock and called themselves "Skolotoi" (...)"
    West 2002, pp. 437–440: "[T]rue Scyths seems to be those whom [Herodotus] calls Royal Scyths, that is, the group who claimed hegemony [...] apparently warrior-pastoralists. It is generally agreed, from what we know of their names, that these were people of Iranic stock (...)"
    Rolle 1989, p. 56: "The physical characteristics of the Scythians correspond to their cultural affiliation: their origins place them within the group of Iranic peoples."
    Rostovtzeff 1922, p. 13: "The Scythian kingdom [...] was succeeded in the Russian steppes by an ascendancy of various Sarmatian tribes — Iranics, like the Scythians themselves."
    Minns 2011, p. 36: "The general view is that both agricultural and nomad Scythians were Iranic."
    Diakonoff 1985, p. 48: "The majority of the “Eastern” Iranic tribes – Scythians, Alani, Massagetae, Sakas, Chorasmians, Sogdians – remained on the territory of south-eastern Europe and in Central Asia."
  4. Bois et al. 2012, p. 439: "The Kurds, an Iranic people of the Near East (...)"
    Donzel 1994, p. 222: "(...) the Kurds are an Iranic people who live mainly at the junction of more or less laicised Turkey, Shi'i Iran, Arab Sunni Iraq and North Syria and the former Soviet Transcaucasia."
  5. Diakonoff 1985, p. 48: "The majority of the “Eastern” Iranic tribes – Scythians, Alani, Massagetae, Sakas, Chorasmians, Sogdians – remained on the territory of south-eastern Europe and in Central Asia."
  6. Tokhtas’ev 1991, p. 563–567: "CIMMERIANS, a nomadic people, most likely of Iranian origin (...)"
    Harmatta 1996a, p. 181: "[B]oth Cimmerians and Scythians were Iranian peoples."
  7. Diakonoff 1985, p. 48: "The majority of the “Eastern” Iranian tribes – Scythians, Alani, Massagetae, Sakas, Chorasmians, Sogdians – remained on the territory of south-eastern Europe and in Central Asia."
  8. Bosworth 2011, p. 520–522.
  9. Frye 1975b, p. 90: "The Tāhirids were culturally highly Arabicized, but they were nevertheless Persians."
  10. Bosworth 2001, p. 586–590.
  11. Wink 2020, p. 78.
  12. Bjork 2010.
  13. Aldosari, Ali (2007). Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa. p. 472, "There were many local Persian dynasties, including the Tahirids, the Saffarids (...)"
  14. Daftary, Farhad (2012). Historical Dictionary of the Ismailis. p. 51, "The Saffarids, the first Persian dynasty, to challenge the Abbasids (...)"
  15. Meisami, Julie Scott; Starkey, Paul (ed.) (1998). Encyclopedia of Arabic Literature. Vol. 2. p. 674, "Saffarids: A Persian dynasty (...)"
  16. Bosworth 1996, p. 147.
  17. Frye 1975a, p. 160.
  18. Bosworth 2000.
  19. Nagel 1990, p. 578–586.
  20. Bosworth 1996a, p. 151.
  21. Peacock 2000.
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 22.3 Kennedy 2016, p. 215. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFKennedy2016 (help)
  23. Peacock 2017.
  24. Bosworth 1996b, p. 89
  25. Kennedy 1990, p. 15.
  26. Aḥmad 1985, p. 97–98.
  27. Bosworth 1984, pp. 762–764.
  28. Bosworth 1998, p. 359–362.
  29. Bosworth 2003, p. 93.
  30. Bosworth 1996c, p. 206.
  31. Riley-Smith 2008, p. 64.
  32. Laine 2015, p. 133.
  33. Lewis 2002, p. 166.
  34. Gohari 2000, p. 4.
  35. Donzel 1994a, p. 290.
  36. Bosworth 1984b, p. 742–743.
  37. Matthee 2005, p. 17; Matthee 2008.
  38. Amoretti & Matthee 2009.
  39. Savory 2008, p. 8.
  40. Hanifi 2001, p. 670–672.
  41. Balland 1995, p. 513–519.
  42. Tucker 2020.
  43. Perry 2011, p. 561–564.
  44. Yarshater 2004, p. 234–238.
  45. Perry 2000.
  46. Perry 2002.
  47. Lansford 2017, p. 70.
  48. Aghaie 2011, p. 49.
  49. Amanat 2017, p. 473.

Sources[change | change source]

  • Bjork, Robert E., ed. (2010). "Saffarid dynasty". The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198662624. One of the first indigenous Persian dynasties to emerge after the Arab Islamic invasions.
  • Bosworth, C.E. (2001). "Ghurids". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. X, Fasc. 6. pp. 586–590. Nor do we know anything about the ethnic stock of the Ḡūrīs in general and the Šansabānīs in particular; we can only assume that they were eastern Iranian Tajiks.
  • Wink, André (2020). The Making of the Indo-Islamic World. Cambridge University Press. p. 78. (...) the Ghurids [...] and they were not Turkish nomads but instead of sedentary Tajik origin.
  • McGing, Brian (2009). "MITHRIDATES VI". Encyclopædia Iranica. They were certainly Iranian nobility who took part in the Persian colonization of Asia Minor (...)
  • Bosworth, C. E. (2000). "MOSAFERIDS". Encyclopaedia Iranica. MOSAFERIDS [...] a dynasty of Deylamite origin (...)
  • Bosworth, C.E. (2011). "ARRĀN". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. II, Fasc. 5. pp. 520–522. Albania was ruled by princes of the Mihrān family, who claimed descent from the Sasanians but were probably of Parthian origin.
  • McGing, Brian (2004). "Pontus". Encyclopædia Iranica. They were a powerful and noble Persian family (...)
  • Weiskopf, Michael (1990). "CAPPADOCIA". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. IV, Fasc. 7–8. pp. 780–786. (...) Hellenistic-era Iranian kingdom (...) But all in all, Cappadocia remained an Iranian kingdom, one which developed from an Achaemenid satrapy.
  • Frye, Richard N., ed. (1975a). "The Sāmānids". The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge University Press. p. 160. ISBN 0-521-20093-8. The memory of the Sāmānids, not only as the last Iranian dynasty in Central Asia, but that dynasty which unified the area under one rule and which saved the legacy of ancient Iran from extinction, lasted long in Central Asia (...)
  • Frye, Richard N., ed. (1975b). "The Ṭāhirids and Ṣaffārids". The Cambridge History of Iran, Volume 4: From the Arab Invasion to the Saljuqs. Cambridge University Press. p. 90. ISBN 0-521-20093-8. The Tāhirids were culturally highly Arabicized, but they were nevertheless Persians.
  • Nagel, Tilman (1990). "BUYIDS". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. IV. Fasc. 6. pp. 578–586. BUYIDS [...] dynasty of Daylamite origin ruling over the south and western part of Iran and over Iraq (...)
  • Amoretti, Biancamaria Scarcia; Matthee, Rudi (2009). "Ṣafavid Dynasty". In Esposito, John L. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. Of Kurdish ancestry, the Ṣafavids started as a Sunnī mystical order (...)
  • Matthee, Rudi (2005). The Pursuit of Pleasure: Drugs and Stimulants in Iranian History, 1500-1900. Princeton Universty Press. pp. 18. The Safavids, as Iranians of Kurdish ancestry and of nontribal background (...)
  • Matthee, Rudi (2008). "SAFAVID DYNASTY". Encyclopædia Iranica. As Persians of Kurdish ancestry and of a non-tribal background, the Safavids (...)
  • Savory, Roger (2008). "EBN BAZZĀZ". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. VIII. Fasc. 1. p. 8. This official version contains textual changes designed to obscure the Kurdish origins of the Safavid family and to vindicate their claim to descent from the Imams.
  • Tucker, Ermest (2020). "Karīm Khān Zand". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett (ed.). Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill. The Zands were a branch of the Laks, a subgroup of the northern Lurs, who spoke Luri, a Western Iranian language.{{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  • Perry, John R. (2011). "KARIM KHAN ZAND". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. XV. Fasc. 6. pp. 561–564. The Zand were a pastoral tribe of the Lak branch of the northern Lors (...)
  • Perry, John R. (2000). "ZAND DYNASTY". Encyclopædia Iranica. The founder of the dynasty was Moḥammad Karim Khan b. Ināq Khan (...) of the Bagala branch of the Zand, a pastoral tribe of the Lak branch of Lors (...)
  • Yarshater, Ehsan (2004). "IRAN ii. IRANIAN HISTORY (2) Islamic period (page 4)". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. XIII. Fasc. 3. pp. 234–238. The Zand were a Lor tribe that lived in the vicinity of Malāyer in western Persia.
  • Aghaie, Kamran Scot (2011). The Martyrs of Karbala: Shi'i Symbols and Rituals in Modern Iran. University of Washington Press. p. 49. ISBN 978-0-295-80078-3. (...) Reza Shah [...] He was from a Mazandarani family (...)
  • Amanat, Abbas (2017). Iran: A Modern History. Yale University Press. p. 473. ISBN 978-0-300-23146-5. (...) Reza Shah, himself a Mazandarani (...)
  • Perry, J.R (2002). "Zand". In Bearman, P. J.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E. & Heinrichs, W. P. (ed.). The Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition. Brill. The Zand belonged to the Lakk group of Lurs (...){{cite encyclopedia}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  • Aḥmad, K. M. (1985). "ʿANNAZIDS". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. II. Fasc. 1. pp. 97–98. ANNAZIDS [...] a Kurdish dynasty (...)
  • Riley-Smith, Jonathan (2008). The Crusades, Christianity, and Islam. Columbia Universty Press. pp. 64. ISBN 978-0-231-14625-8. Saladin's relative obscurity in Muslim history was understandable. He was a Kurd.
  • Laine, James W. (2015). Meta-Religion: Religion and Power in World History. California Universty Press. p. 133. ISBN 978-0-520-95999-6. A Kurd, Saladin was born in Iraq (in Tikrit, Saddam Hussein's hometown), and became famous in medieval legend for his chivalrous exchanges with Richard the Lionheart, commander of the Third Crusade.
  • Lewis, Bernard (2002). Arabs in History. Oxford University Press. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-19-158766-5. A Kurdish officer called Salāh al-Dīn, better known in the West as Saladin, went to Egypt, where he served as Wazir to the Fațimids while representing the interests of Nūr al-Din. In 1171 Saladin declared the Fațimid Caliphate at an end.
  • Kennedy, Hugh (2016). The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates. Routledge. p. 215. ISBN 9781317376392. The Kurdish dynasties which emerged in the second half of the fourth/ tenth century, the Hasanuyids and 'Annazids of the central Zagros, the Rawwadids and Shaddadids of Azarbayjan (...)
  • Peacock, Andrew (2000). "SHADDADIDS". Encyclopædia Iranica. SHADDADIDS [...] Caucasian dynasty of Kurdish origin reigning from about 950 until 1200, first in Dvin and Ganja, later in Ani.
  • Bosworth, C.E (1996a). The New Islamic Dynasties. Columbia University Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-231-10714-3. The Shaddādids were another of the dynasties which arose in north-western Persia during the 'Daylamī interlude', and it is probable that they were of Kurdish origin.
  • Peacock, Andrew (2017). "RAWWADIDS". Encyclopædia Iranica. RAWWADIDS [...] a family of Arab descent [...] Their Kurdicized descendants ruled over Azerbaijan and parts of Armenia in the second half of the 10th and much of the 11th century.
  • Bosworth, C. Edmund (2003). "HAZĀRASPIDS". Encyclopædia Iranica. Vol. XII. Fasc. 1. p. 93. HAZĀRASPIDS, a local dynasty of Kurdish origin which ruled in the Zagros mountains region of southwestern Persia, essentially in Lorestān and the adjacent parts of Fārs (...)
  • Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1996). The New Islamic Dynasties. Columbia University Press. p. 147. The Sajids were a line of caliphal governors in north-western Persia, the family of a commander in the 'Abbasid service of Soghdian descent which became culturally Arabised.
  • Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1984). "Āl-e Maʾmūn". Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc. 7. pp. 762–764. ĀL-E MAʾMŪN [...] a short-lived dynasty of independent Iranian rulers (...)
  • Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1998). "KĀKUYIDS". Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. XV, Fasc. 4. pp. 359–362. KĀKUYIDS [...] a dynasty of Deylamite origin (...)
  • Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1996c). The New Islamic Dynasties. Columbia University. p. 209. The Atabegs of Yazd (1141-1297) [...] From the names of the earlier members at least, it seems they were ethnically Persian, but, like the Hazaraspids, they adopted the Turkish title of Atabeg (...)
  • Donzel, E. J. van (1994a). Islamic Desk Reference. BRILL. p. 290. ISBN 90-04-09738-4. Muin* al-Din Sulayman Parwana [...] Of Persian stock (...)
  • Gohari, M. J. (2000). The Taliban: Ascent to Power. Oxford University Press. pp. 4. ISBN 9780195795608. The indigenous Kert (Kurt) dynasty, a Tajik line related to the Ghurids, ruled at Herat (...)
  • Bosworth, C. E. (1984b). "Āl-e Afrāsīāb". Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. I, Fasc. 7. pp. 742–743. ĀL-E AFRĀSĪĀB, a minor Iranian Shiʿite dynasty (...)
  • Hanifi, M. Jamil (2001). "ḠILZĪ". Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. X, Fasc. 6. pp. 670–672. ḠILZĪ [...] one of three major Pashtun/Paxtun tribal confederations in Afghanistan.
  • Balland, Daniel (1995). "DORRĀNĪ". Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. VII, Fasc. 5. pp. 513–519. DORRĀNĪ [...] probably the most numerous Pashtun tribal confederation (...)
  • Lansford, Tom (2017). Afghanistan at War: From the 18th-Century Durrani Dynasty to the 21st Century. ABC-CLIO. p. 70. The Barakzai (sons of Barak) are one of the Pashtun tribes of Afghanistan and have traditionally formed part of the political and social elite of the country.
  • Ivantchik, Askold (2018). "Scythians". Encyclopædia Iranica. SCYTHIANS, a nomadic people of Iranian origin (...)
  • Harmatta, János (1996). "The Scythians". In Herrmann, Joachim; Zürcher, Erik (ed.). History of Humanity: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D. Vol. 3. UNESCO. pp. 181–182. ISBN 923102812X. [B]oth Cimmerians and Scythians were Iranian peoples.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  • Sulimirski, T. (1985). "The Scyths". In Gershevitch, I (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran: The Median and Achaemenian Periods. Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. pp. 149–153. ISBN 978-1-139-05493-5. During the first half of the first millennium B.C., c. 3,000 to 2,500 years ago, the southern part of Eastern Europe was occupied mainly by peoples of Iranian stock [...] [T]he population of ancient Scythia was far from being homogeneous, nor were the Scyths themselves a homogeneous people. The country called after them was ruled by their principal tribe, the "Royal Scyths" (Her. iv. 20), who were of Iranian stock and called themselves "Skolotoi" (...)
  • West, Stephanie (2002). "Scythians". In In Bakker, Egbert J.; de Jong, Irene J. F.; van Wees, Hans (ed.). Brill's Companion to Herodotus. Brill. pp. 437–456. ISBN 978-90-04-21758-4. [T]rue Scyths seems to be those whom [Herodotus] calls Royal Scyths, that is, the group who claimed hegemony [...] apparently warrior-pastoralists. It is generally agreed, from what we know of their names, that these were people of Iranian stock (...){{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  • Rolle, Renate (1989). The World of the Scythians. University of California Press. pp. 56. ISBN 0-520-06864-5. The physical characteristics of the Scythians correspond to their cultural affiliation: their origins place them within the group of Iranian peoples.
  • Rostovtzeff, Michael (1922). Iranians & Greeks In South Russia. Clarendon Press. pp. 13. The Scythian kingdom [...] was succeeded in the Russian steppes by an ascendancy of various Sarmatian tribes — Iranians, like the Scythians themselves.
  • Minns, Ellis Hovell (2011). Scythians and Greeks: A Survey of Ancient History and Archaeology on the North Coast of the Euxine from the Danube to the Caucasus. Cambridge University Press. pp. 36. ISBN 978-1-108-02487-7. The general view is that both agricultural and nomad Scythians were Iranian.
  • Tokhtas’ev, Sergei R. (1991). "CIMMERIANS". Encyclopædia Iranica, Vol. V, Fasc. 6. pp. 563–567. CIMMERIANS, a nomadic people, most likely of Iranian origin (...)
  • Harmatta, János (1996a). "The Scythians". In Herrmann, Joachim; Zürcher, Erik (ed.). History of Humanity: From the seventh century B.C. to the seventh century A.D. Vol. 3. UNESCO. pp. 181–182. ISBN 923102812X. [B]oth Cimmerians and Scythians were Iranian peoples.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  • Diakonoff, I. M. (1985). "Media". In Gershevitch, I. (ed.). The Cambridge History of Iran: The Median and Achaemenian Periods. Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-521-20091-2. The majority of the “Eastern” Iranian tribes – Scythians, Alani, Massagetae, Sakas, Chorasmians, Sogdians – remained on the territory of south-eastern Europe and in Central Asia.
  • Kennedy, H. N. (1990). "The 'Abbasid caliphate: a historical introduction". In Julia Ashtiany, T. M Johnstone, J. D. Latham, R. B. Serjeant, G. Rex Smith (ed.). Abbasid Belles Lettres. Cambridge University Press. pp. 15. ISBN 978-0-521-24016-1. Other areas of the Middle East saw the emergence of dynasties of local, often tribal, origin at this time; some, like the Uqaylids of Mosul and the Mazyadids of Hillah, were Arab; others, like the Hasanuyids of the central Zagros mountains or the Marwanids of Mayyafariqin, were Kurdish.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: editors list (link)
  • Kennedy, Hugh (2016). The Prophet and the Age of the Caliphates. Routledge. p. 215. ISBN 9781317376392. The Kurdish dynasties which emerged in the second half of the fourth/tenth century, the Hasanuyids and 'Annazids of the central Zagros, the Rawwadids and Shaddadids of Āzarbayjān and the Marwanids of southeastern Anatolia, based their power on the military prowess of the Kurdish tribesmen.