List of World Heritage Sites in Russia

This article is about a World Heritage Site
From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The List of World Heritage Sites in Russia is a group of places chosen by UNESCO, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.

History[change | change source]

UNESCO was created for the "conservation and protection of the world’s inheritance of books, works of art and monuments of history and science". The constitution of UNESCO was ratified in 1946 by 26 countries.[1]

Russia agreed to take part in the World Heritage Convention in 1988.[2]

List[change | change source]

The World Heritage Site (WHS)[3] list has developed over time. It is part of a process; and the list continues to grow.

There are 24 WHS places in the Russian Federation.[4]

Name Image Federal subject Date UNESCO data Description Ref(s)
Central Sikhote-Alin Rock in Sikhote-Alin.jpg Primorsky Krai
766; 2001;
The Sikhote-Alin mountain range has one the richest and most unusual temperate forests of the world. The site goes from the peaks of Sikhote-Alin to the Sea of Japan. It is important for the survival of many endangered species such as the Amur tiger. [5]
Curonian Spit 1 Вид с озера Лебедь на залив.jpg Kaliningrad Oblast
994; 2000;
Human habitation of this long sand dune peninsula, 98 km long and 0.4–4 km wide, dates back to prehistoric times. Through this period it has been threatened by the natural forces of wind and waves. Its survival to the present day has been made possible only as a result of human efforts to stop the erosion of the Spit. [6]
Golden Mountains of Altai Ukok Plateau 2.jpg Altai Republic
768; 1998;
The Altai mountains in southern Siberia form the major mountain range in the western Siberia. The total area covers 1,611,457 ha. The site is also an important habitat for endangered animal species such as the snow leopard. [7]
Lake Baikal Olchon Shaman Rock.jpg Irkutsk Oblast and Republic of Buryatia
754; 1996;
vii, viii, ix, x
In south-east Siberia, the 3.15-million-ha Lake Baikal is the oldest (25 million years) and deepest (1,700 m) lake in the world. It has 20% of the world's total unfrozen freshwater reserve. Known as the 'Galapagos of Russia', its age and isolation have made one of the world's richest and most unusual freshwater faunas. [8]
Natural System of Wrangel Island Reserve Wrangel-island-sat.jpg Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
1023; 2004;
ix, x
Well above the Arctic Circle, the site includes the mountainous Wrangel Island (7,608 km2), Herald Island (11 km2) and surrounding waters. The island has the world’s largest population of Pacific walrus and the highest density of ancestral polar bear dens. It is a major feeding ground for the grey whale and the northernmost nesting ground for 100 migratory bird species, many endangered. Currently, 417 species and subspecies of vascular plants have been identified on the island, double that of any other Arctic tundra territory of comparable size and more than any other Arctic island. [9]
Putorana Plateau Plato Putorana 03.jpg Krasnoyarsk Krai
1234; 1987;
vii, ix

This site covers the same area as the Putoransky State Nature Reserve. It is in the central part of the Putorana Plateau in northern Central Siberia. It is about 100 km north of the Arctic Circle.

Uvs Nuur Basin3 Uvs-noor.jpg Tuva Republic
769; 2006;
ix, x

The Uvs Nuur Basin (1,068,853 ha), is the northernmost of the enclosed basins of Central Asia. It takes its name from Uvs Nuur Lake, a large, shallow and very saline lake, important for migrating birds, waterfowl and seabirds.

Virgin Komi Forests Four herous01.JPG Komi Republic 719; 1995;
vii, ix
The Virgin Komi Forests cover 3.28 million ha of tundra and mountain tundra in the Urals. The large area of conifers, aspens, birches, peat bogs, rivers and natural lakes has been monitored and studied for over 50 years. It provides valuable evidence of the natural processes affecting biodiversity in the taiga. [12]
Volcanoes of Kamchatka Klyuchevskoi.jpg Kamchatka Krai 765; 1996;
vii, viii, ix, x
This is one of the most outstanding volcanic regions in the world. There are many active volcanos, a variety of types, and a wide range of related features. The sites has great species diversity, including the world's largest known variety of salmonoid fish and exceptional amounts of sea otter, brown bear and Stellar's sea eagle. [13]
Western Caucasus Rododendron1.jpg Krasnodar Krai and Republic of Adygea
900; 1999;
ix, x
The Western Caucasus is one of the few large mountain areas of Europe that has not had large human impact. [14]
Architectural Ensemble of the Trinity Sergius Lavra Trinitylavra.jpg Sergiev Posad, Moscow Oblast
14th century on 657; 1993;
ii, iv
This is a fine example of a working Orthodox monastery, with military features that are typical of the 15th to the 18th century, the period during which it developed. The main church of the Lavra, the Cathedral of the Assumption (echoing the Kremlin Cathedral of the same name), has the tomb of Boris Godunov. Among the treasures of the Lavra is the famous icon, The Trinity, by Andrei Rublev. [15]
Church of the Ascension Moscow Kolomenskoye Ascension Church (14).jpg Kolomenskoye, Moscow
16th century 634; 1994;
The Church of the Ascension was built in 1532 on the imperial estate of Kolomenskoye, near Moscow. It was made to celebrate the birth of the prince who was to become Tsar Ivan IV ('the Terrible'). It was one of the earliest examples of a traditional wooden tent-roofed church on a stone and brick substructure. It had a great influence on the development of Russian ecclesiastical architecture. [16]
Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent Derbent winter.jpg Derbent,
Republic of Dagestan
6th century on 1070; 2003;
iii, iv
The Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent were part of the northern lines of the Sasanian Persian Empire, which went east and west of the Caspian Sea. The fortification was built in stone. It had two parallel walls that formed a barrier from the seashore up to the mountain. The town of Derbent was built between these two walls, and has retained part of its medieval fabric. The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. [17]
Ensemble of the Ferapontov Monastery Ferapontovo April 2007 0736.jpg Vologda Oblast
14th century on 982; 2000;
i, iv
The Ferapontov Monastery, in the Vologda region in northern Russia, is very well-preserved. It is a complete example of a Russian Orthodox monastic complex of the 15th-17th centuries. [18]
Ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent Russie - Moscou - Novodevichy 4.jpg Moscow,
Moscow Oblast
16th century on 1097; 2004;
i, iv, vi
The Novodevichy Convent, in south-western Moscow, built in the 16th and 17th centuries in the so-called Moscow Baroque style, was part of a chain of monastic ensembles that were added into the defence system of the city. The convent was directly associated with the political, cultural and religious history of Russia. It was closely linked to the Moscow Kremlin. It was used by women of the Tsar’s family and the aristocracy. Members of the Tsar’s family and entourage were also buried in its cemetery. The convent provides an example of the highest accomplishments of Russian architecture with rich interiors and an important collection of paintings and artefacts. [19]
Historic and Architectural Complex of the Kazan Kremlin Spas tower kazan.jpg Kazan,
Republic of Tatarstan
16th-19th century 980; 2000;
ii, iii, iv
Built on an ancient site, the Kazan Kremlin dates from the Muslim period of the Golden Horde and the Kazan Khanate. It was conquered by Ivan the Terrible in 1552 and became the Christian See of the Volga Land. The only surviving Tatar fortress in Russia and an important place of pilgrimage, the Kazan Kremlin has an outstanding group of historic buildings dating from the 16th to 19th centuries. [20]
Historic Centre of St. Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments PalaceSquare.JPG Saint Petersburg,
Leningrad Oblast
18th-19th century 540; 1990;
i, ii, iv, vi
The 'Venice of the North', with its numerous canals and more than 400 bridges, is the result of a vast urban project begun in 1703 under Peter the Great. Later known as Leningrad (in the former USSR), the city is closely associated with the October Revolution. [21]
Historic Centre of the City of Yaroslavl Yar downtown.JPG Yaroslavl,
Yaroslavl Oblast
16th century on 1170; 2005;
ii, iv
The historic city of Yaroslavl developed into a major commercial centre from the 11th century. It is known for its many 17th-century churches. It is an outstanding example of the urban planning reform Empress Catherine the Great ordered for the whole of Russia in 1763. While keeping some of its significant historic structures, the town was renovated in the neoclassical style. It has also kept elements from the 16th century in the Spassky Monastery, one of the oldest in the Upper Volga region. [22]
Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings Velikiy Novgorod Detinets 02.jpg Novgorod Oblast
11th-17th century 604; 1992;
ii, iv, vi
Novgorod was Russia's first capital in the 9th century. [23]
Kizhi Pogost Kishi church 0.jpg Karelia,
Republic of Karelia
18th-19th century 544; 1990;
i, iv, v
The pogost of Kizhi (i.e. the Kizhi enclosure) is on one of the many islands in Lake Onega, in Karelia. Two 18th-century wooden churches, and an octagonal clock tower, also in wood and built in 1862, can be seen there. [23]
Moscow Kremlin and Red Square Moscow RedSquare.jpg Moscow,
Moscow Oblast
13th-20th century 545; 1990;
i, ii, iv, vi
The Kremlin (built between the 14th and 17th centuries by outstanding Russian and foreign architects) was the home of the Great Prince and also a religious centre. At the foot of its ramparts, on Red Square, St Basil's Basilica is one of the most beautiful Russian Orthodox monuments. [24]
Cultural and Historic Ensemble of the Solovetsky Islands Solovetsky Monastery.jpg Solovetsky Islands,
Arkhangelsk Oblast
15th century 632; 1992;
The Solovetsky archipelago has six islands in the western part of the White Sea, covering 300 km2. People have lived there since the 5th century B.C. Important traces of a human presence from as far back as the 5th millennium B.C. can be found there. [25]
Struve Geodetic Arc2 GoglandZ.jpg Gogland,
Leningrad Oblast
19th century 1187; 2005;
ii, iii, vi
The Struve Arc is a chain of survey triangulations going from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea, through 10 countries and over 2,820 km. These made the first accurate measuring of a long segment of a meridian. [26]
White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal Bogolubovo Pokrova na Nerli Cerkov.jpg Vladimir Oblast
12th-13th century 633; 1992;
i, ii, iv
These two artistic centres in central Russia hold an important place in the country's architectural history. There are a number of magnificent 12th- and 13th-century public and religious buildings, above all the masterpieces of the Collegiate Church of St Demetrios and the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin. [27]

Tentative list[change | change source]

The Tentative List consists of sites which have been nominated. The evaluation process is not yet completed.

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. UNESCO, "Constitution"; retrieved 2012-7-18.
  2. UNESCO, "States Parties: Ratification Status"; retrieved 2012-7-18.
  3. WHS is an acronym. WHS stands for "World Heritage Site".
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 4.21 4.22 4.23 4.24 4.25 4.26 UNESCO, "Russian Federation"; retrieved 2012-7-18.
  5. Central Sikhote-Alin, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  6. Curonian Spit, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  7. Golden Mountains of Altai, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  8. Lake Baikal, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  9. Natural System of Wrangel Island Reserve, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  10. Putorana Plateau, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  11. Uvs Nuur Basin, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  12. Virgin Komi Forests, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  13. Volcanoes of Kamchatka, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  14. Western Caucasus, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  15. Architectural Ensemble of the Trinity Sergius Lavra, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  16. Church of the Ascension, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  17. Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  18. Ensemble of the Ferapontov Monastery, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  19. Ensemble of the Novodevichy Convent, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  20. Historic and Architectural Complex of the Kazan Kremlin, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  21. Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  22. Historic Centre of the City of Yaroslavl, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  23. 23.0 23.1 Kizhi Pogost, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  24. Moscow Kremlin and Red Square, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  25. Cultural and Historic Ensemble of the Solovetsky Islands, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  26. Struve Geodetic Arc, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12
  27. White Monuments of Vladimir and Suzdal, UNESCO, retrieved 2010-11-12

Other websites[change | change source]

Media related to World Heritage Sites in Russia at Wikimedia Commons