List of current heads of state and government
In some cases they are de facto leaders not occupying either of those positions or prime ministers who are not heads of government. 195 states (193 UN members + Vatican City + Taiwan) are the basic list.
Also there are leaders of 10 other national entities (quasi and unrecognized states, and of 7 in exile and/or alternative governments (only in exile governments that exercised power or succeeded governments that exercised power).
For local rulers, for example rulers of dependencies and of the main administrative divisions, such as autonomous regions, insular or peninsular regions, successors of historical regions or regions with strong identity, regions in the news, etc.) see List of the main local rulers.
Member and observer states of the United Nations[change | change source]
- Note: Names in small font generally denote acting, transitional, temporary leaders, or representatives. Other notes and exceptions are provided at § Notes.
Other states[change | change source]
The following states control their territory and are recognised by at least one UN member state.
The following states control their territory, but are not recognised by any UN member states.
|State||Also claimed by||Head of state||Head of government|
|Artsakh||Azerbaijan||President – Arayik Harutyunyan|
|Donetsk People's Republic||Ukraine||Head of the Republic – Denis Pushilin||Prime Minister – Alexander Ananchenko|
|Luhansk People's Republic||Ukraine||Head of the Republic – Leonid Pasechnik||Prime Minister – Sergey Kozlov|
|Somaliland||Somalia||President – Muse Bihi Abdi|
|Transnistria||Moldova||President – Vadim Krasnoselsky||Prime Minister – Aleksandr Martynov|
Other governments[change | change source]
These alternative governments are recognized as legitimate by at least one UN member.
Other entities[change | change source]
|Entity||Head of entity||Head of government|
|Sovereign Military Order of Malta||Lieutenant (interim Grand Master) – Marco Luzzago||Grand Chancellor – Albrecht Freiherr von Boeselager|
Notes[change | change source]
- The President of France and the French Co-Prince of Andorra are positions held by the same person.
- Constitutionally, Elizabeth II is separately and equally monarch of 16 sovereign states—alongside the United Kingdom (UK)—known collectively as the Commonwealth realms. In each of these states, with the exception of the UK (where she permanently resides), she is duly represented at the national level by a governor-general.
- The three-member Bosnian presidency is the head of state collectively.
- In this state, the president is both head of state and head of government; the office of prime minister may exist in these states, but it does not direct executive power—nor does the Myanma/Burmese State Counsellor, the Peruvian President of the Council of Ministers, the Saudi Arabian First Deputy Prime Minister, or the Sierra Leonean Chief Minister.
- According to articles 89 to 91 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Supreme Leader of Iran is the head of state, and the President is the head of government. However, the President is still required to gain the Supreme Leader's official approval before being sworn in before Parliament, and the Supreme Leader also has the power to dismiss the elected President at any time.
- In actuality the constitution of Japan does not define a formal head of state. The Emperor by unwritten constitutional convention fulfills the functions and duties of the head of state.
- The Governor-General of New Zealand and the Governor-General of Niue are positions held by the same person.
- The term "Supreme Leader" is used as a description (for the sake of brevity) rather than being an official title of a single office.
The three actual offices held by Kim are:
- General Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea
- Chairman of the State Affairs Commission of the DPRK—constitutionally defined as the supreme leader of North Korea
- Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the DPRK
- The President (otherwise known as Chairman) of the Presidium of the Supreme People's Assembly accepts the credentials of foreign ambassadors and represents North Korea on all state visits—ceremonial functions usually performed by heads of state in other states. The president has held these duties since 1998, when the constitution was revised.
- The seven-member Swiss Federal Council is collectively head of state and government. As a party to the Council, the President serves solely in a primus inter pares capacity for one year.
- The office of head of state of Venezuela has been disputed between Nicolás Maduro and the President of the National Assembly of Venezuela, Juan Guaidó, since 11 January 2019. See also the Other governments section of this list article.
- States in free association with New Zealand.