List of scientists
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This is a list of noted scientists ordered by by nationality.
Afghanistan[change | change source]
- Ashraf Ghani, President of Afghanistan (as of 2017); he is a scientist in the field of Anthropology
- Abdul Karim Mustaghni, was Defense Minister of Afghanistan; died in 2004
Albania[change | change source]
Argentina[change | change source]
Armenia[change | change source]
- Boris Babaian - he got the awards (from the Soviet Union): the USSR State Prize for his achievements in 1974 in the field of computer-aided design, and the Lenin Prize in 1987 for the Elbrus-2 supercomputer design. Since 1984, he has been a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (later - Russian Academy of Sciences)
Australia[change | change source]
- Peter C. Doherty - he got the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; his fields of science are Medicine and veterinary science.
- Peter Gavin Hall, one of only three researchers based outside of North America to win the COPSS presidents' Award; Mathematics, statistics; died in 2016
Austria[change | change source]
- Peter M. Gruber, Fellow of the American Mathematical Society, for "contributions to the geometry of numbers and to convex and discrete geometry"; Geometric number theory, and convex and discrete geometry; died in 2017
Azerbaijan[change | change source]
- Lotfi A. Zadeh - pioneer (or one of the earliest scientists) of fuzzy logic; computer scientist, electrical engineer, mathematician; d. in 2017
Bangladesh[change | change source]
- Muhammed Zafar Iqbal - he has a Bangladesh National Film Awards for Best Story; he is a scholar of engineering and computer science.
Belarusia[change | change source]
- Lev Vygotsky, credited for starting the concept, zone of proximal development, or ZPD, which is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she cannot do; Psychology; died in 1934
Belgium[change | change source]
Belize[change | change source]
- Janet Gibson - she got the Goldman Environmental Prize in 1990; she is a zoologist (and therefore also a biologist).
- Andrea Gill - she is a former president of the Senate of Belize; biologist
Bermuda[change | change source]
- Louis L. Mowbray - he successfully bred the first Galapagos tortoises and Galapagos penguins in captivity; he was a naturalist and an ornithologist; death in 1952
- David B. Wingate (He got the awards, the Queen’s Honours (UK); and (UN's) Global 500 Award)
Bolivia[change | change source]
Bosnia and Herzegovina[change | change source]
- Alojz Benac - became a corresponding member of the Yugoslav/Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts; Archeology; died in 1992.
Brazil[change | change source]
- Fernando Henrique Cardoso, sociologist and former President
- Adib Jatene, was Minister of Health; heart surgeon; died in 2014
- Warwick Estevam Kerr, is a member of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, and of the Third World Academy of Sciences; member of the National Order of Scientific Merit; Genetics, Biology, Agronomy, Entomology
- Fritz Müller, known for Müllerian mimicry; Evolutionary biology; died in 1897
Bulgaria[change | change source]
- Lyubomir Ivanov, got the award, Acad. Nikola Obreshkov Prize, the highest Bulgarian award in mathematics.; Linguistics, Mathematics
Canada[change | change source]
Czechia[change | change source]
Chile[change | change source]
China[change | change source]
- Xu Guangxian, was president of the Chinese Chemical Society; Chemistry; died in 2015
- Zhang Heng, made the first seismometer; Astronomy, engineering, meteorology, geology, philosophy, and mathematics; died in 139 A.D.
Croatia[change | change source]
- Roger Joseph Boscovich, maker of a precursor of atomic theory; made the first geometric procedure for finding out the equator of a rotating planet from three observations of a surface feature and for computing the orbit of a planet from three observations of its position; discoverer of the absence of atmosphere on the Moon; he was from a city in what later became Croatia; died in 1787
Czechia[change | change source]
Denmark[change | change source]
Egypt[change | change source]
- Ibrahim Abouleish, founder of SEKEM - an organization for biodynamic farming methods; got the Right Livelihood Award; Pharmacology; died in 2017
- Boutros Boutros-Ghali, was United Nations Secretary-General; a leading figure in the peace process between Egypt and Israel; Law; died in 2016
- Mamdouh Eldamaty, is a former Minister of Antiquities; Egyptology
- Euclid of Alexandria, known for Euclidean geometry, Euclid's Elements, Euclidean algorithm; died in the middle of 3rd century BC
Estonia[change | change source]
- Karl Ernst von Baer, Embryology (within Biology); died in 1876
- Madis Kõiv - he got the award, the Tuglas short story award; physicist, writer and philosopher; died in 2014
Fiji[change | change source]
France[change | change source]
- Jacqueline Naze Tjøtta, the first female mathematical sciences professor in Norway; Applied mathematics, she died in 2017
- Sophie Germain
Finland[change | change source]
Georgia[change | change source]
- Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze - a former member of the Parliament of Georgia; he is an assyriologist (and therefore a linguist)
- Jamshid Giunashvili - he was a linguist (Iranologist); died in 2017
Germany[change | change source]
Great Britain[change | change source]
England[change | change source]
- Charles Babbage, credited with inventing the first mechanical computer (or analytical engine); died in 1871
- Alan Turing, he was important in the development of theoretical computer science, and is known for the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer; died in 1954
Greece[change | change source]
Guatemala[change | change source]
- Ricardo Bressani, one of the 42 founding members of the Third World Academy of Sciences, later known as The World Academy of Sciences; Biochemistry, Nutrition; died in 2015
Guyana[change | change source]
- Opendra Narayan - he is known for engineering a type of HIV that could cause AIDS-like disease in monkeys; the veterinarian died in 2007
Haiti[change | change source]
- Jean-Baptiste Chavannes - he got the Goldman Environmental Prize for his work on forest protection; he is an agronomist.
Holland[change | change source]
Honduras[change | change source]
- Julieta Castellanos - she has the award, the the International Women of Courage Award from the U.S. State Department.
Hungary[change | change source]
- János Bolyai, one of the founders of non-Euclidean geometry — a geometry that differs from Euclidean geometry in its definition of parallel lines; Mathematics; died in 1860
- Paul Erdős, published around 1,500 mathematical papers during his lifetime, a figure that remains unsurpassed; died 1996
Iceland[change | change source]
India[change | change source]
India[change | change source]
- Satyendra Nath Bose, known for Bose–Einstein condensate and Bose–Einstein statistics; Mathematics, Physics; died in 1974
- Srinivasa Ramanujan, known for Landau–Ramanujan constant, Mock theta functions, Ramanujan conjecture, Ramanujan prime, Ramanujan–Soldner constant, Ramanujan theta function, Ramanujan's sum, Rogers–Ramanujan identities, Ramanujan's master theorem; Fellow of the Royal Society; Mathematics; died in 1920
Indonesia[change | change source]
Italy[change | change source]
- Gerolamo Cardano, he invented - partially - the gimbal consisting of three concentric rings allowing a supported compass or gyroscope to rotate freely, and the Cardan shaft; died in 1576
Iran[change | change source]
Japan[change | change source]
- Masaaki Sugihara - former professor at the University of Tokyo
- Masao Iri
- Masatake Mori
- Motoo Kimura, and one other, introduced [or where the first to present] the neutral theory of molecular evolution; Population geneticis, Evolutionary biology; died in 1994
- Ryogo Hirota - former professor at Waseda University
Kazakhstan[change | change source]
- Askar Dzhumadildayev - member of the Kazakhstan National Academy of Science. He is a former member of Supreme Council of Kazakh SSR and Republic of Kazakhstan; he is a mathematician and physicist.
Kosovo[change | change source]
Kyrgyzstan[change | change source]
Laos[change | change source]
Latvia[change | change source]
- Rūsiņš Mārtiņš Freivalds, discovered Freivalds' algorithm for checking the correctness of matrix products; Theoretical computer science; died in 2016
Macedonia[change | change source]
Morocco[change | change source]
- Ibn Ghazi al-Miknasi, wrote Meknes's history and a commentary to the treatise of Ibn al-Banna; a work that explained the mentioned work, was named ["The desire of students for an explanation of the calculator's craving"] Bughyat al-tulab fi sharh munyat al-hussab (including, arithmetic and algebraic methods). Mathematics, linguistics; died in 1513
Nepal[change | change source]
- Kumud Dhital - he is one of the members of the team that first transplanted a heart donated after circulatory death (DCD), where the heart has stopped beating; he is a surgeon.
New Zealand[change | change source]
- Nancy Adams, got the awards, Queen's Service Order, and the New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal. Botany; died in 2007
- Margaret Cruickshank, the first registered woman doctor in New Zealand; died in 1918
- Fred Hollows; Medicine, surgery, ophthalmology; died in 1993
- Ernest Rutherford - he got the Nobel Prize in Chemistry; nuclear physicist, and chemist; he died in 1937
- Pat Suggate, creator of the the "Suggate rank scheme", which is used internationally by oil exploration companies to measure the oil and gas potential of sedimentary rocks; fellowship at Royal Society of New Zealand; died in 2016
- Maurice Wilkins, got the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; his fields were Physics, Molecular biology; died in 2004
North Korea[change | change source]
Norway[change | change source]
- Niels Henrik Abel, did the first complete proof demonstrating the impossibility of solving the general quintic equation (en) in radicals; died in 1829 
Romania[change | change source]
- Ion Creangă - he wrote books, including Childhood Memories; the education theorist died in 1889
- Solomon Marcus, recognised as an initiator of (, or one of the people that started) mathematical linguistics, and mathematical poetics; also a semiotician, he died in 2016
- George Emil Palade - he and two others got one Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine; the cell biologist died in 2008.
- Ion Heliade Rădulescu - the first president of the Romanian Academy; the linguist died in 1802
- Codrin Țapu - known as a writer about hypostatic approach to personality, and hypostatic abstraction" (en); he is a psychologist
Russia[change | change source]
Solomon Islands[change | change source]
- Hikuna Judge, collected the first known sample of the Vangunu giant rat; Tyrone Lavery and Judge gave the first species description (for the Vangunu giant rat)
South Africa[change | change source]
South Korea[change | change source]
- Yanghee Choi - he is a former minister of Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning; he is a computer scientist.
Sweden[change | change source]
Switzerland[change | change source]
- Leonhard Euler, was the first to show the notion of (or idea about), a mathematical function; died in 1783
Syria[change | change source]
- Al-Battani, known for showing several relations within trigonometry; he lived and worked in a city that now belongs to Syria; died in 929
Thailand[change | change source]
- Phraya Anuman Ratchathon - he was the first Thai scholar to conduct a serious study of Thai folkloristics, taking notes on the nocturnal village spirits of Thai folklore; the anthropologist and ethnographer died in 1969
Tunisia[change | change source]
- Abbas Bahri, introduced the method of the critical points at infinity, which is a fundamental step in the calculus of variations; Mathematics, Variational analysis; died in 2016
Turkey[change | change source]
- Feza Gürsey, took part in the formulation of E(6) grand unified theories; Mathematical physics; died in 1992
Ukraine[change | change source]
- Kostiantyn Sytnyk - he was a Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada (a parliament) of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic; Botany; he died in 2017
United States[change | change source]
- Thomas Edison - he and his workers made "the first practical incandescent light bulb"; died in 1931
- Benjamin Franklin, President of Pennsylvania, died in 1790
Vietnam[change | change source]
- Ngô Bảo Châu - best known for proving the fundamental lemma for automorphic forms (en). He is the first Vietnamese national to have received the Fields Medal; mathematician
Related pages[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
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Providing a blueprint for the electronic digital computer. The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine.
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