List of states with limited recognition

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In international law a political entity needs to fulfill different criteria to become an independent state: One of these criteria is that other states must recognize it as a state. If more states recognize it, becoming a de jure sovereign state will be easier.

Many of the territories listed below broke off (separated themselves) from their original parent state, and so they are often referred to as "break-away" states, that are de facto independent and are not recognized by other states or are only recognized by few states. They may have some military protection and informal diplomatic representation abroad. Another state may help them avoid forced reincorporation into its original state.

UN member states not recognized by at least 1 UN member state[change | change source]

  • China The People's Republic of China is the more widely recognized of the two claimant governments of China, the other being the Republic of China (ROC, also known as Taiwan). The United Nations recognized the ROC as the sole representative of China until 1971 when it decided to give this recognition to the PRC instead (see United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758). The PRC and the ROC do not recognize each other's statehood, and each enforces its own version of the One-China policy so that no state can recognize both of them at the same time. The states that recognize the ROC (14 UN members and the Holy See as of 20 September 2019) regard it as the sole legitimate government of China and therefore do not recognize the PRC. Bhutan is the only UN member state that has never explicitly recognized either the PRC or the ROC. The Republic of China considers itself to be the sole legitimate government of China (including Taiwan), and therefore claims exclusive sovereignty over all territory controlled by the PRC.
  • South Korea The Republic of Korea is not recognized by one UN member, North Korea. North Korea considers itself to be the sole legitimate government of Korea and claims all territory controlled by South Korea

UN observer states not recognized by at least one UN member[change | change source]

Partially recognized states with de facto control over their territory[change | change source]

  • Abkhazia Abkhazia in Georgia is a self-declared and mostly functioning independent state. It is recognized by the Russian Federation, Nicaragua and Venezuela. The country is between the Caucasus and the Black Sea. It is recognized by the Georgian government as a part of northwestern Georgia. During the Soviet period, Abkhazia became a part of Georgia in 1931. It was an autonomous republic within Soviet Georgia. The Abkhazian Soviets said it was independent from Georgia in 1992. A short war was fought from 1992 through 1994. In June 1994, a ceasefire ended the fighting and left Abkhazia outside the control of Georgia's central government.

United Nations member states that are not recognized by all the other UN members are not listed here. (For example, 39 countries do not recognize Israel.)

More unrecognized states with de facto control over their territory[change | change source]

  • Somaliland Somaliland (since 1991) is located in north west of Somalia. In May of 1991, north western clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes five of the eighteen administrative regions of Somalia, corresponding to the British Somali Coast Protectorate which is located between Ethiopia, Djibouti, Puntland and the Gulf of Aden. Three regions of north Somalia claimed by Somaliland, Sool, Sanaag and Cayn are disputed with neighbouring Puntland in the north east.[1]
  • Transnistria Transnistria (Pridnestrovie), also spelled Transdniestria, is the part of Moldova east of the river Dniester and (since 1990) a self-declared and more or less functioning independent state with no international recognition from any sovereign state. It has a majority Slavic population, as opposed to majority Moldovan which Moldova has. Also known as the Dniester Republic, it has its own police, army, and currency and functions outside of the jurisdiction of Moldova, however, there is no sign of it becoming an internationally recognized country.

Partially recognized states largely under military occupation[change | change source]

Internationally administered territory with de facto recognition[change | change source]

Historic unrecognized or partially recognized states with de facto control over their territory[change | change source]

Europe[change | change source]

Asia[change | change source]

Africa[change | change source]

  • Anjouan (1997-2002). Now part of Comoros.
  • Biafra controlled territory in eastern Nigeria between the time of its secession in May 1967 until its final military collapse in January 1970. It was recognized by 12 nations.
  • Katanga controlled the state of the same name within the former Belgian Congo after decolonisation, between 1960 and 1964.
  • Mohéli (1997-1998). Now part of Comoros.
  • Rhodesia. British Colony that unilaterally declared independence in 1965. This action was not legally recognized by any other nation, nor the declaration of Rhodesia as a republic in 1970. This entity remained until 1979, when it became Zimbabwe-Rhodesia.
  • Zimbabwe-Rhodesia. Formed in 1979 after negotiations between white minority government and moderate black leaders. Existed 1 June to 12 December 1979, when it became the colony of South Rhodesia again. In 1980 it became the Republic of Zimbabwe.

South African Homelands[change | change source]

Created by the Republic of South Africa from its own territory

Americas[change | change source]

Oceania[change | change source]

Historic unrecognized or partially recognized governments with de facto control over their territory[change | change source]

These regimes had control over the territory of a country for which most other states recognized a different government as being the legitimate government:

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. "World court says Kosovo's independence is legal - Yahoo! News". Retrieved 2010-07-24.[permanent dead link]