Livonian War

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Livonia in 1534

The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia). The Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of the Dano-Norwegian Realm, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.

At the end of the war Russia lost all of its former holdings in Livonia and Polotsk to Poland–Lithuania. The following year, Sweden and Russia signed the Truce of Plussa, with Sweden gaining most of Ingria and northern Livonia while keeping the Duchy of Estonia.