London shown in the UK
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Districts||City & 32 London boroughs|
|Settled by Romans||as Londinium ca. AD 50|
|• Regional authority||Greater London Authority|
|• Regional assembly||London Assembly|
|• Mayor||Sadiq Khan|
|• HQ||City Hall|
| • UK Parliament
- London Assembly
- European Parliament
|• City||1.00 sq mi (2.6 km2)|
|• Greater London||609 sq mi (1,580 km2)|
|Elevation||79 ft (24 m)|
|Population (mid-2006 est)|
|• Urban||9.7 million
(Greater London Urban Area)
|• Metro||13–14 million|
|• Density||8,215/sq mi (3,172/km2)|
|• Greater London||7,512,400|
|• Greater London density||12,331/sq mi (4,761/km2)|
|Time zone||GMT (UTC0)|
|• Summer (DST)||BST (UTC+1)|
For a long time, London was a small city. All its people lived inside the walls that were built by the Romans. This area is still called the City of London. There were many villages around the city. Gradually, more people came to live there. Then, step by step, the villages joined together into one huge city.
The city has a huge network of transport systems. The Victorians built a number of railway systems in the mid-19th century. Their main stations are in London, and the lines go to every corner of Great Britain. There were originally five major companies, which were merged into a national rail network in modern times.
There is also the world's first underground railway system, London Underground, which is the main way commuters get into London. There are five airports, though only one is actually in London (London City Airport). There is the London end of the London–Birmingham canal, which was important to the industrial 19th century.
Most people in London are British. However, London also has many immigrants. These people come from many different countries. They speak many different languages and have different religions and cultures. There are also many people from different countries who stay in London on business. Many people visit London as tourists. They may see the famous "Sights of London". These sights include palaces, churches and museums.
History[change | change source]
The Romans built a city called Londinium on the River Thames in AD 43. The name Londinium (and then 'London') came from the Celtic language of the Ancient Britons. In the year AD 61, Queen Boudica (a British Celtic queen) and her army destroyed the city. Boudica killed herself when Romans trapped her. Then the Romans rebuilt London. London became an important trading city. After the Romans left Britain, few people lived in the city for a long time. This is because the Anglo-Saxons liked living in the countryside. In the 9th century, more people started living there again. It became the largest city in England. However, it did not become the capital city of England until the 12th century.
Another famous old part of Greater London is Westminster, which was always a different city from the City of London. In Westminster is Westminster Abbey (a cathedral), The Palace of Westminster (the Houses of Parliament, with Big Ben), and 10 Downing Street (where the Prime Minister lives).
Events[change | change source]
- AD 43 - Londinium is founded by the Romans
- 61 - Londinium is sacked by Queen Boudica and the Iceni
- 100 - Londinium becomes the capital of Roman Britain
- 200 - The population is about 6,000
- 410 - The end of Roman rule in Britain
- 8th century - London is captured by Vikings
- 885 - King Alfred the Great recaptures the city and makes peace with the Viking leader Guthrum.
- 1045-50 - Westminster Abbey is rebuilt by Edward the Confessor who is buried there in January 1066.
- 1066 - William the Conqueror is crowned in Westminster Abbey.
- 1100 - The population is about 16,000.
- 1300 - The population of London has risen to 100,000.
- 1381 - The Peasants' Revolt – the first poll tax riots
- 1605 - The Gunpowder Plot is stopped
- 1665 - The Great Plague of London
- 1666 - The Great Fire of London
- 1780 - The Gordon Riots
- 1851 - The Great Exhibition held at the Crystal Palace
- 1908 - The Summer Olympic Games take place in London.
- 1940-1941 - London was bombed by Germany during World War II. This is known as The Blitz.
- 1948 - The Summer Olympic Games take place in London for the second time.
- 1966 - The Football World Cup final took place in London. It was won by England.
- 1990 - The Second Poll Tax Riots
- 2005 - The 7 July bombings on the London Underground and a bus. 52 people die and over 700 people are injured.
- 2012 - The Summer Olympic Games take place in London for a third time.
- 2017 - There were two terrorist attacks that happened in London this year. The first happened in March on Westminster Bridge and Parliament Square. Five people are killed outside the Palace of Westminster including the attacker and a police officer. 40 more people were injured. Another attack happened on London Bridge in June. Seven people were killed before the Metropolitan Police shot down the three attackers near Borough Market. The Islamic State has said they were responsible for both attacks.
Climate[change | change source]
London has an oceanic, or temperate climate. It is not usually very hot or cold. It is often cloudy.
|Climate data for Heathrow Airport|
|Average high °C (°F)||8.1
|Average low °C (°F)||2.3
|Rainfall mm (inches)||55.2
|Source: Met Office|
Landmarks[change | change source]
- Big Ben
- Buckingham Palace
- Millennium Dome
- London Eye
- Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square
- Tower Bridge
- London Underground
- Natural History Museum
- St. Paul's Cathedral
- Palace of Westminster
Twinnings[change | change source]
London has twin and sister city agreements with these cities:
- Sister cities:
- Partner cities:
London Underground[change | change source]
The London Underground is a system of electric trains which are in London, United Kingdom. It is the oldest underground railway in the world. It started running in 1863 as the Metropolitan Railway. After the opening the system was copied in many other cities, for example New York and Madrid. Even though it is called the Underground about half of it is above the ground. The "Tube" is a slang name for the London Underground, because the tunnels for some of the lines are round tubes running through the ground. The Underground has got 274 stations and over 408 km of track. From 2006–2007 over 1 billion passengers used the underground.
References[change | change source]
- "London, United Kingdom Forecast : Weather Underground (weather and elevation at Heathrow Airport)" (online). http://www.wunderground.com/global/stations/03772.html. Retrieved 2007-03-16.
- "Population Growth in London, 1939–2015". London Datastore. Greater London Authority. January 2015. p. 2. https://files.datapress.com/london/dataset/population-change-1939-2015/historical%20population%201939-2015.pdf. Retrieved 2015-09-16.
- "Global Financial Centres 9". Z/Yen. 2011. http://www.zyen.com/GFCI/GFCI%209.pdf.
- ""World's most economically powerful cities".". Forbes. 15 July 2008. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. http://www.forbes.com/2008/07/15/economic-growth-gdp-biz-cx_jz_0715powercities.html. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
- "Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index 2008". Mastercard. http://www.mastercard.com/us/company/en/insights/pdfs/2008/MCWW_WCoC-Report_2008.pdf.
- "London in Scottish Gaelic". Glosbe Dictionary website. http://glosbe.com/en/gd/London. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- "Beijing, London to be sister cities". China Daily, 11 April 2006. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2006-04/11/content_565439.htm. Retrieved 2006-6-6.
- "Sister City - London". nyc.gov. http://www.nyc.gov/html/unccp/scp/html/sc/london_main.shtml. Retrieved 2007-02-03.
Other websites[change | change source]
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide about: London|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: London|
|Greater London • London • City of London|
London Boroughs: Barking and Dagenham • Barnet • Bexley • Brent • Bromley • Camden • Croydon • Ealing • Enfield • Greenwich • Hackney • Hammersmith and Fulham • Haringey • Harrow • Havering • Hillingdon • Hounslow • Islington • Kensington and Chelsea • Kingston • Lambeth • Lewisham • Merton • Newham • Redbridge • Richmond • Southwark • Sutton • Tower Hamlets • Waltham Forest • Wandsworth • Westminster