# Lorentz transformation

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The Lorentz transformations is a set of equations that describe a linear transformation between a stationary reference frame and a reference frame in constant velocity. The equations are given by:

${\displaystyle x'={\frac {x-vt}{\sqrt {1-{\frac {v^{2}}{c^{2}}}}}}}$ , ${\displaystyle y'=y}$ , ${\displaystyle z'=z}$ , ${\displaystyle t'={\frac {t-{\frac {vx}{c^{2}}}}{\sqrt {1-{\frac {v^{2}}{c^{2}}}}}}}$

where ${\displaystyle x'}$represents the new x co-ordinate, ${\displaystyle v}$ represents the velocity of the other reference frame, ${\displaystyle t}$ representing time, and ${\displaystyle c}$ the speed of light.

On a Cartesian coordinate system, with the vertical axis being time (t), the horizontal axis being position in space along one axis (x), the gradients represent velocity (shallower gradient resulting in a greater velocity). If the speed of light is set as a 45° or 1:1 gradient, Lorentz transformations can rotate and squeeze other gradients while keeping certain gradients, like a 1:1 gradient constant. Points undergoing a Lorentz transformations on such a plane will be transformed along lines corresponding to ${\displaystyle t^{2}-x^{2}=n^{2}}$ where n is some number

Points undergoing a Lorentz transformation follow the green, conjugate hyperbola, where the vertical axis represents time, ${\displaystyle y^{2}-x^{2}=n^{2}}$