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Maikei Ngaakpa Lai

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A Maikei Ngaakpa Lai is a member of the Guardian deities ("Ngaakpa Lai"s) of the ten directions ("Maikei"s) in Meitei mythology and religion. The foremost of them are Marjing (Malching), Thangjing (Thangching), Koubru (Koupalu) and Wangbren (Wangpulel).[1]

Four Major Directions[change | change source]

The deities who guard the four directions are as follows:

Awang koubru[change | change source]

Koupalu (ꯀꯧꯄꯂꯨ) or Koubru (ꯀꯧꯕ꯭ꯔꯨ) is the Guardian of the North West direction. He is the patron of the Mount Koubru in Northern Manipur.[2][3][4]

Marjing[change | change source]

Marjing (ꯃꯥꯔꯖꯤꯡ) or Malching (ꯃꯥꯜꯆꯤꯡ) is the Guardian of the North East direction. Besides, he is the inventor of the Sagol Kangjei, a primitive form of modern polo, and Meitei horse. He rides on Samadon Ayangba, a mythical winged horse.[5]

Thangching[change | change source]

Thangjing (ꯊꯥꯡꯖꯤꯡ) or Thangching (ꯊꯥꯡꯆꯤꯡ) is the Guardian of the South West direction.[6] Besides, he is the patron deity of the Ancient Moirang.[7][8]

Wangpulel[change | change source]

Wangpulel (ꯋꯥꯡꯄꯨꯂꯦꯜ) or Wangbren (ꯋꯥꯡꯕ꯭ꯔꯦꯟ) is the Guardian of the South East direction. Besides, he is the deity of underwater world and disaster.[9][10][11]

Four Cardinal Directions[change | change source]

Kounu[change | change source]

Kounu (ꯀꯧꯅꯨ) is the Guardian of the Northern direction. She is the goddess who dwells in the snows of far north. She is the consort of Koupalu and the mother of Loyalakpa.[12]

Lok Ningthou[change | change source]

Lok Ningthou (ꯂꯣꯛ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ) is the Guardian of the Southern direction. Little is known or mentioned about him in the legends.

Loyalakpa[change | change source]

Loyalakpa (ꯂꯣꯌꯥꯂꯥꯛꯄ) or Loyarakpa (ꯂꯣꯌꯥꯔꯥꯛꯄ) is the Guardian of the Western direction. He is the only son of Koupalu and Kounu. He is best known for having a divine wrestling match with Khoriphaba.[13]

Nongpok Ningthou[change | change source]

Nongpok Ningthou (ꯅꯣꯡꯄꯣꯛ ꯅꯤꯡꯊꯧ) is the Guardian of the Eastern direction. He is the patron of the Nongmaiching Hill in Eastern Manipur.[14]

Two Extra directions[change | change source]

There are two extra directions, which are zenith (upwards) and nadir (downwards). The two deities are:

Salailen[change | change source]

Salailen Sitapa (ꯁꯂꯥꯏꯂꯦꯟ ꯁꯤꯇꯄ) is the Guardian of the upward direction. Besides, he is the king of gods and the ruler of heaven.[15]

Thongalel[change | change source]

Thongalel (ꯊꯣꯡꯉꯥꯂꯦꯜ) is the Guardian of the downwards direction. Besides, he is the god of the death and the ruler of the underworld kingdom.[16][17][18][19][20][21]

References[change | change source]

  1. The Manipuri Lais
  2. The Manipuri Lais
  3. Singh, N. Tombi (1972). Manipur: A Study. Available with Raj Stores.
  4. Brara, N. Vijaylakshmi (1998). Politics, Society, and Cosmology in India's North East. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-564331-2.
  5. The Manipuri Lais
  6. Singh, N. Tombi (1975). Manipur and the Mainstream. Chitrebirentombichand Khorjeirup.
  7. North East India History Association. Session (1999). Proceedings of North East India History Association. The Association.
  8. The Manipuri Lais
  9. The Manipuri Lais
  10. Konsam, Saratchandra (2001). Glimpses on the Culture and Biology of the People of North East India. Har-Anand. ISBN 978-81-241-0797-3.
  11. Singh, N. Joykumar (2006). Ethnic Relations Among the People of North-East India. Centre for Manipur Studies, Manipur University and Akansha Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-8370-081-8.
  12. Tensuba, Keerti Chand (1993). Genesis of Indian Tribes: An Approach to the History of Meiteis and Thais. Inter-India Publications. ISBN 978-81-210-0308-7.
  13. Traditional Customs and Rituals of Northeast India: Arunachal Pradesh, meghalaya, Manipur, Assam. Vivekananda Kendra Institute of Culture. 2002.
  14. Parratt, Saroj Nalini (1980). The Religion of Manipur: Beliefs, Rituals, and Historical Development. Firma KLM. ISBN 978-0-8364-0594-1.
  15. The Manipuri Lais
  16. Singh, Wahengbam Ibohal (1986). The History of Manipur: An early period. Manipur Commercial Company.
  17. Mehrotra, Deepti Priya (2009). Burning Bright Irom Sharmila. Penguin UK. p. 39. ISBN 978-81-8475-153-6.
  18. The North Eastern Geographer. North East India Geographical Society. 1980.
  19. Medieval Indian Literature: An Anthology. Sahitya Akademi. 1997. ISBN 9788126003655.
  20. India. Indian Historical Records Commission (1976). Proceedings of the Meetings of the Session. Manager of Publications.
  21. Contributions to Southeast Asian Ethnography. Board of Editors, Contributions to Southeast Asian Ethnography. 1982.

Meitei mythology & folklore

Mythic Texts and Folktales:
Numit Kappa | Moirang Kangleirol | Moirang Shayon | Khamba Thoibi | Sandrembi Chaisra
Fungawari Singbul | Funga Wari
Maikei Ngaakpa Lais | Leimalel | Sanamahi
Emoinu | Panthoipi
Legendary Creatures:
Dragons | Helloi | Hingchabi | Keibu Keioiba | Khoirentak tiger | Samadon Ayangba | Uchek Langmeidong
Mythical and Sacred Places:
Lai Lamlen | Khamnung | Kangla | Mt. Koupalu | Nongmaiching Hills | Thangching Hills