Majapahit

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Majapahit Empire
ꦤꦒꦫꦶꦏꦫꦗꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀  (Javanese)
ᬧ᭄ᬭᬚᬫᬚᬧᬳᬶᬢ᭄  (Balinese)
Kemaharajaan Majapahit  (Indonesian)
1293–1527
The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama[1] in 1365
The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama[1] in 1365
CapitalTrowulan, now Mojokerto
Common languages
Religion
GovernmentAbsolute monarchy
Maharaja 
• 1293–1309
Raden Wijaya
• 1309–1328
Jayanegara
• 1328–1350
Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi
• 1350–1389
Hayam Wuruk
• 1389–1429
Wikramawardhana
• 1429–1447
Suhita
• 1447–1451
Kertawijaya
• 1451–1453
Rajasawardhana
• 1456–1466
Girishawardhana
• 1466–1474
Suraprabhawa
• 1474–1498
Girindrawardhana
History 
• Coronation
10 November[2] 1293
• Demak takeover
1527
Currency
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Singhasari
Demak Sultanate

Majapahit (Javanese: ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀; Javanese pronunciation: [madʒapaɪt]), also known as Wilwatikta[note 3] (Javanese: ꦮꦶꦭ꧀ꦮꦠꦶꦏ꧀ꦠ; Javanese pronunciation: [wɪlwatɪkta]), was a Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia. It was from the island of Java in modern-day Indonesia. It existed from 1293 to around 1527. It was strongest during the era of Hayam Wuruk. He took over many places in Southeast Asia during his reign from 1350 to 1389. According to the Nagarakretagama (Desawarñana) written in 1365, Majapahit was an empire that had land from Sumatra to New Guinea.(p87) It had territory in present-day Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, southern Thailand, East Timor, and southwestern Philippines (the Sulu Archipelago).

Majapahit was one of the last big Hindu-Buddhist empires of the region. It is said to be one of the greatest and most powerful empires in the history of Indonesia and Southeast Asia. Its influence went outside the modern territory of Indonesia and has been studied a lot.

Notes[change | change source]

  1. Surya Majapahit (the Sun of Majapahit) is the emblem commonly found in Majapahit ruins. It served as the symbol of the Majapahit empire.
  2. Red and white is the royal color of Majapahit. How the color was used by Majapahit is still disputed, see the related article for explanation.
  3. Some Javanese court literatures uses this Old Javanese name, which bears the same meaning as "Majapahit", for example in Nagarakretagama canto 1 stanza 2 and Kidung Harsawijaya. It is sometimes also written backwards as Tiktawilwa, for example in Nagarakretagama canto 18 stanza 4. However it is still more widely known by its Javanese name, as recorded in the hikayats of Aceh, Banjar, Malay, Palembang, etc.

References[change | change source]

  1. Hall, D. G. E. (1965). "Problems of Indonesian Historiography". Pacific Affairs. 38 (3/4): 353–359. doi:10.2307/2754037. JSTOR 2754037.
  2. Mahandis Y. Thamrin (September 2012). "10 November, Hari Berdirinya Majapahit" (in Indonesian). National Geographic Indonesia. Archived from the original on 26 May 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2015.
  3. Ooi, Keat Gin, ed. (2004). Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor (3 vols). Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1576077702. OCLC 646857823. Archived from the original on 2016-08-08. Retrieved 2022-12-30.

Bibliography[change | change source]

  • Hall, D.G.E. (1981). A History of South-East Asia (4th ed.). London: The Macmillan Press Ltd. ISBN 978-1-349-16521-6.
  • Muljana, Raden Benedictus Slamet (2005). Al-Fayyadl, Muhammad (ed.). Menuju Puncak Kemegahan: Sejarah Kerajaan Majapahit. Yogyakarta: LKiS Pelangi Aksara.
  • Nugroho, Irawan Djoko (2009). Meluruskan Sejarah Majapahit. Ragam Media.
  • Nugroho, Irawan Djoko (2011). Majapahit Peradaban Maritim. Suluh Nuswantara Bakti. ISBN 978-602-9346-00-8.
  • Pigeaud, Theodoor Gautier Thomas (1960a). Java in the 14th Century: A Study in Cultural History, Volume I: Javanese Texts in Transcription (3rd (revised) ed.). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.
  • Pigeaud, Theodoor Gautier Thomas (1960b). Java in the 14th Century: A Study in Cultural History, Volume II: Notes on the Texts and the Translations (3rd (revised) ed.). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 978-94-011-8774-9.
  • Pigeaud, Theodoor Gautier Thomas (1960c). Java in the 14th Century: A Study in Cultural History, Volume III: Translations (3rd (revised) ed.). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 978-94-011-8772-5.
  • Pigeaud, Theodoor Gautier Thomas (1962). Java in the 14th Century: A Study in Cultural History, Volume IV: Commentaries and Recapitulations (3rd (revised) ed.). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 978-94-017-7133-7.
  • Pigeaud, Theodoor Gautier Thomas (1963). Java in the 14th Century: A Study in Cultural History, Volume V: Glossary, General Index (3rd (revised) ed.). The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. ISBN 978-94-011-8778-7.
  • Prapanca, Mpu (2018). Isidora (ed.). Kakawin Nagarakertagama: Teks Asli dan Terjemahan. Translated by Saktiani, Damaika; Widya, Kartika; Aminullah, Zakaria Pamuji; Marginingrum, Novi; Septi, Neda (2nd (revised) ed.). Yogyakarta: Narasi. ISBN 978-979-168-553-5.
  • John Miksic, ed. (1999). Ancient History. Indonesian Heritage Series. Vol. 1. Archipelago Press / Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 9813018267.
  • Ricklefs, Merle Calvin (1993). A history of modern Indonesia since c. 1300 (2nd ed.). Stanford University Press / Macmillans. ISBN 9780804721950.
  • Ma Huan (1970) [1433]. Ying-yai Sheng-lan (瀛涯胜览) The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores. Hakluyt Society (in Chinese). translated by J.V.G Mills. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521010320.

Other websites[change | change source]