Madagascar

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Republic of Madagascar
  • Repoblikan'i Madagasikara  (Malagasy)
  • République de Madagascar  (French)
Motto: 
  • "Fitiavana, Tanindrazana, Fandrosoana" (Malagasy)
  • "Amour, Patrie, Progrès" (French)
  • "Love, Land of Our Ancestors, Progress"[1]
Anthem: Ry Tanindrazanay malala ô!
Oh, Beloved Land of our Ancestors!
Location of  Madagascar  (dark blue) – in Africa  (light blue & dark grey) – in the African Union  (light blue)
Location of  Madagascar  (dark blue)

– in Africa  (light blue & dark grey)
– in the African Union  (light blue)

Capital
and largest city
Antananarivo
18°55′S 47°31′E / 18.917°S 47.517°E / -18.917; 47.517
Official languages
Ethnic groups
(2004[2])
Demonym(s)Malagasy[3]
GovernmentUnitary semi-presidential constitutional republic
• President
Andry Rajoelina
Christian Ntsay
LegislatureParliament
Senate
National Assembly
Independence
• from France
26 June 1960
17 November 2010
Area
• Total
587,041 km2 (226,658 sq mi) (46th)
• Water
5,501 km2 (2,124 sq mi)
• Water (%)
0.9%
Population
• 2016 estimate
24,894,551[4] (52nd)
• 1993 census
12,238,914
• Density
35.2/km2 (91.2/sq mi) (174th)
GDP (PPP)2017 estimate
• Total
$40.055 billion[5]
• Per capita
$1,563[5]
GDP (nominal)2017 estimate
• Total
$10.372 billion[5]
• Per capita
$405[5]
Gini (2010)44.1[6]
medium
HDI (2015)Increase 0.512[7]
low · 158th
CurrencyMalagasy ariary (MGA)
Time zoneUTC+3 (EAT)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+3 (not observed[8])
Driving sideright
Calling code+261[8]
ISO 3166 codeMG
Internet TLD.mg

Madagascar is a large island nation in the Indian Ocean. It is off of the east coast of Africa. Twenty-two million people live there; its capital is Antananarivo. It is the world's fourth largest island.[9]

The official languages are Malagasy and French.

Pre-human history[change | change source]

About two hundred million years ago, Madagascar was a part of a huge supercontinent called Pangaea. When this broke up, Madagascar was attached to what is now India. Madagascar would later break away from India and became closer to Africa.[10]

The long history of separation from other continents has allowed plants and animals on the island to evolve in relative isolation. Many of its animals came from Africa, because the island is closer to Africa than to India. Many of these endemic Malagasy animals have died out since the arrival of humans, particularly the megafauna.

Despite this, and massive deforestation, Madagascar is still home to an incredible array of wildlife. Most of this is unique.[11]

Environment[change | change source]

Madagascar is home to many species that were not known about until around 1679 when Dutch explorers went there. They do not even exist elsewhere in Africa. They only exist in Madagascar. In fact, most of the mammals living in Madagascar do not live anywhere else in the world.[12]

Many species in Madagascar are in danger because much of the forest has been cut down.[13] Forests are cut down so the land can grow crops such as coffee, which is an important export crop for Madagascar.

Economy[change | change source]

Agriculture is a big part of the economy in Madagascar, including the growing of coffee and vanilla. Madagascar sells more vanilla than any other country in the world.[14] Madagascar also makes money from tourism.[15]

Provinces[change | change source]

Map of the Regions of Madagascar and former provinces of Madagascar

In 2004 Madagascar was divided into 22 regions. It used to be divided into 6 provinces.[16]

Regions and former provinces[17]
New regions Former provinces Population 2004 estimate
Diana (1), Sava (2) Antsiranana 1,291,100
Itasy (3), Analamanga (4), Vakinankaratra (5), Bongolava (6)
Antananarivo
5,370,900
Sofia (7), Boeny (8), Betsiboka (9), Melaky (10) Mahajanga 1,896,000
Alaotra Mangoro (11), Atsinanana (12), Analanjirofo (13) Toamasina 2,855,600
Amoron'i Mania (14), Haute-Matsiatra (15), Vatovavy-Fitovinany (16), Atsimo-Atsinanana (17), Ihorombe (18)
Fianarantsoa 3,730,200
Menabe (19), Atsimo-Andrefana (20), Androy (21), Anosy (22) Toliara 2,430,100

Human history[change | change source]

People have probably lived in Madagascar for at least 2000 years.[18]

France took over the city of Antananarivo in 1895, and added Madagascar as a colony two years later.[19] Madagascar became independent from France, which meant it became its own country, on 26 June, 1960. Philibert Tsiranana became the first president of Madagascar (1960-72).

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. Le Comité Consultatif Constitutionnel (1 October 2010). "Projet de Constitution de la Quatrième République de Madagascar" (PDF) (in French). Madagascar Tribune. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
  2. "MADAGASCAR: general data". Populstat.info. Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  3. "Demonyms – Names of Nationalities". Geography.about.com. Retrieved 15 July 2013.
  4. "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Madagascar". International Monetary Fund.
  6. "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011.
  7. "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2016. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Bradt (2011), p. 2.
  9. "CIA - The World Factbook -- Madagascar". Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on August 25, 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  10. "Giant palm tree puzzles botanists". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved May 7, 2010.
  11. Benstead, Jonathan P.; Goodman, Steven D. (2003). The natural history of Madagascar. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-30306-3.
  12. "Dark history of Madagascar - Times Online". timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  13. "Deforestation In Madagascar". www1.american.edu. Archived from the original on June 6, 2010. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  14. Saholiarisoa, Sanja. "Reuters AlertNet - Cyclones, politics to hurt Madagascar vanilla". alertnet.org. Archived from the original on June 20, 2010. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  15. "Economy of Madagascar". wildmadagascar.org. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  16. Deschamps (1965), pp. 268, 274.
  17. Ralison, Eliane; Goossens, Frans (January 2006), "Madagascar: profile des marches pour les evaluations d'urgence de la securite alimentaire", in World Food Programme (ed.), Archived copy (PDF), Strengthening emergency needs assessment capacity (in French), Rome, Italy: Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, p. 3, archived (PDF) from the original on January 16, 2012, retrieved January 14, 2012{{citation}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. "Dark history of Madagascar - Times Online". timesonline.co.uk. Retrieved May 6, 2010.
  19. "History of Madagascar - Lonely Planet Travel Information". lonelyplanet.com. Retrieved May 6, 2010.

Other websites[change | change source]