Male breast cancer

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Male breast cancer (male breast neoplasm) is a rare cancer in males that originates from the breast. Many males with breast cancer have got it through a BRCA mutation, but there are other causes, including alcohol abuse and exposure to certain hormones and ionizing radiation.[1][2][3] The optimal treatment is currently not known.[4]

Staging[change | change source]

In addition to TNM staging surgical staging for breast cancer is used; it is the same as in female breast cancer and facilitates treatment and analysis.[5]

Stage I[change | change source]

Stage I is an invasive breast cancer with the tumor not exceeding 2 cm and absence of lymph node involvement.

Stage II[change | change source]

Stage II includes stages IIA and IIB.

References[change | change source]

  1. "Male Breast Cancer Treatment". National Cancer Institute. 2006. Retrieved 2010-05-14.
  2. "Breast Cancer in Men". Cancer Research UK. 2007. Retrieved 2010-05-14.
  3. "Breast Cancer in Men" (PDF). American Cancer Society. February 9, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-24.
  4. Korde, L. A.; Zujewski, J. A.; Kamin, L.; Giordano, S.; Domchek, S.; Anderson, W. F.; Bartlett, J. M. S.; Gelmon, K.; Nahleh, Z.; Bergh, J.; Cutuli, B.; Pruneri, G.; McCaskill-Stevens, W.; Gralow, J.; Hortobagyi, G.; Cardoso, F.; et al. (2010). "Multidisciplinary Meeting on Male Breast Cancer: Summary and Research Recommendations". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 28 (12): 2114–2122. doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.25.5729. PMC 2860409. PMID 20308661..
  5. "Stages of Breast Cancer". Retrieved 2010-05-20.