March of the Volunteers

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March of the Volunteers
National anthem ofChina
(also Hong Kong and Macao)
Adopted1949 (provisional)[1]
1982 (China, officially)
1997 (Hong Kong)[2]
1999 (Macau)[3]
2004 (constitutional)[4]
2017 (legalised)

The March of the Volunteers (zh. 义勇军进行曲 / 義勇軍進行曲 Yìyǒngjūn Jìnxíngqǔ, pron. [î.jʊ̀ŋ.tɕʏ́n tɕîn.ɕǐŋ.tɕʰʏ̀] "EE-yuhng-JWEEN JEEN-sheeng-chwee") is the title of the national anthem of the People's Republic of China. It was written by playwright Tian Han in 1934, and composed by Nie Er a year later. It was first adopted in 1949[1] when the nationalist government was overthrown. It also became the national anthems of Hong Kong in 1997[2] and Macao in 1999.[3] In 2004, this anthem became embedded in the Chinese Constitution.[4]

Original and current lyrics[change | change source]

Mandarin Chinese version[change | change source]

Simplified Chinese
(official)
Hanyu Pinyin
(official romanization)
Traditional Chinese Bopomofo
(obsolete)
IPA transcription

起来!不愿做奴隶的人们!
把我们的血肉,筑成我们新的长城!
中华民族到了最危险的时候,
每个人被迫着发出最后的吼声。
起来!起来!起来!
我们万众一心,
冒着敌人的炮火,前进!
冒着敌人的炮火,前进!
前进!前进!进![5][6][7]

Qǐlái! Búyuàn zuò núlì de rénmen!
Bǎ wǒmen de xuèròu, zhùchéng wǒmen xīn de chángchéng!
Zhōnghuá mínzú dàoliǎo zuì wēixiǎn de shíhòu.
Měi ge rén bèipòzhe fāchū zuìhòu de hǒushēng.
Qǐlái! Qǐlái! Qǐlái!
Wǒmen wànzhòngyìxīn,
Màozhe dírén de pàohuǒ, qiánjìn!
Màozhe dírén de pàohuǒ, qiánjìn!
Qiánjìn! Qiánjìn! Jìn!

起來!不願做奴隸的人們!
把我們的血肉,築成我們新的長城!
中華民族到了最危險的時候,
每個人被迫著發出最後的吼聲。
起來!起來!起來!
我們萬眾一心,
冒著敵人的炮火,前進!
冒著敵人的炮火,前進!
前進!前進!進!

ㄑㄧˇ ㄌㄞˊ! ㄅㄨ´ ㄩㄢ` ㄗㄨㄛ` ㄋㄨ´ ㄌㄧ` ˙ㄉㄜ ㄖㄣ´ ˙ㄇㄣ!
ㄅㄚˇ ㄨㄛˇ ˙ㄇㄣ ˙ㄉㄜ ㄒㄩㄝ` ㄖㄡ`,ㄓㄨˋ ㄔㄥ´ ㄨㄛˇ ˙ㄇㄣ ㄒㄧㄣ ˙ㄉㄜ ㄔㄤ´ ㄔㄥ´!
ㄓㄨㄥ ㄏㄨㄚ´ ㄇㄧㄣ´ ㄗㄨ´ ㄉㄠ` ㄌㄧㄠˇ ㄗㄨㄟ` ㄨㄟ ㄒㄧㄢˇ ˙ㄉㄜ ㄕ´ ㄏㄡˋ ,
ㄇㄟˇ ˙ㄍㄜ ㄖㄣ´ ㄅㄟ` ㄆㄛ` ˙ㄓㄜ ㄈㄚ ㄔㄨ ㄗㄨㄟ` ㄏㄡ` ˙ㄉㄜ ㄏㄡˇ ㄕㄥ。
ㄑㄧˇ ㄌㄞˊ! ㄑㄧˇ ㄌㄞˊ! ㄑㄧˇ ㄌㄞˊ!
ㄨㄛˇ ˙ㄇㄣ ㄨㄢ` ㄓㄨㄥ` ㄧˋ ㄒㄧㄣ,
ㄇㄠ` ˙ㄓㄜ ㄉㄧ´ ㄖㄣ´ ˙ㄉㄜ ㄆㄠ` ㄏㄨㄛˇ,ㄑㄧㄢ´ ㄐㄧㄣ`!
ㄇㄠ` ˙ㄓㄜ ㄉㄧ´ ㄖㄣ´ ˙ㄉㄜ ㄆㄠ` ㄏㄨㄛˇ,ㄑㄧㄢ´ ㄐㄧㄣ`!
ㄑㄧㄢ´ ㄐㄧㄣ`! ㄑㄧㄢ´ ㄐㄧㄣ`! ㄐㄧㄣ`!

[tɕʰì.lǎɪ̯ ‖ pǔ.ʏ̯ɛ̂n tswô̞ nǔ.lî tɤ ɻə̌n.mən ‖]
[pà̠ wò̞.mən tɤ ɕʏ̯ø̞̂.ɻô̞ʊ̯ ǀ ʈʂû.ʈʂʰɤ̞̌ŋ wò̞.mən ɕín tɤ ʈʂʰɑ̌ŋ.ʈʂʰɤ̞̌ŋ ‖]
[ʈʂʊ́ŋ.xwǎ̠ mǐn.tsǔ tɑ̂ʊ̯.ljɑ̀ʊ̯ tswê̞ɪ̯ wé̞ɪ̯.ɕjɛ̀n tɤ ʂɻ̩̌.xô̞ʊ̯ ‖]
[mè̞ɪ̯ kɤ ɻə̌n bê̞ɪ̯.pʰwô̞.ʈʂɤ fá̠.ʈʂʰú tswê̞ɪ̯.xô̞ʊ̯ tɤ xò̞ʊ̯.ʂɤ̞́ŋ ‖]
[tɕʰì.lǎɪ̯ ‖ tɕʰì.lǎɪ̯ ‖ tɕʰì.lǎɪ̯ ‖]
[wò̞.mən wân.ʈʂʊ̂ŋ.î.ɕín ǀ]
[mɑ̂ʊ̯.ʈʂɤ tǐ.ɻə̌n tɤ pʰɑ̂ʊ̯.xwò̞ ǀ tɕʰjɛ̌n.tɕîn ‖]
[mɑ̂ʊ̯.ʈʂɤ tǐ.ɻə̌n tɤ pʰɑ̂ʊ̯.xwò̞ ǀ tɕʰjɛ̌n.tɕîn ‖]
[tɕʰjɛ̌n.tɕîn ‖ tɕʰjɛ̌n.tɕîn ‖ tɕîn ‖]

English versions[change | change source]

More literal version Paul Robeson version

Arise, ye who refuse to be slaves!
With our flesh and blood, let us build a new Great Wall!
As China faces its greatest peril
From each one the urgent call to action comes forth.
Arise! Arise! Arise!
Millions of but one heart
Braving the enemies' fire! March on!
Braving the enemies' fire! March on!
March on! March, march on![8]

Arise, you who refuse to be bond slaves,
Let's stand up and fight for liberty and true democracy,
All our world is facing the change of the tyrant!
Everyone who works for freedom is now crying:
Arise, Arise, Arise!
All of us with one heart,
With the torch of freedom, march on,
With the torch of freedom,
March on, March on! March on and on![8]

1978–82 lyrics[change | change source]

Simplified Chinese
(official)
Traditional Chinese Hanyu Pinyin
(official romanization)
English translation

前进!各民族英雄的人民!
伟大的共产党领导我们继续长征。
万众一心奔向共产主义明天,
建设祖国保卫祖国英勇的斗争。
前进!前进!前进!
我们千秋万代
高举毛泽东旗帜,前进!
高举毛泽东旗帜,前进!
前进!前进!进![9][10]

前進!各民族英雄的人民!
偉大的共產黨領導我們繼續長征。
萬衆一心奔向共產主義明天,
建設祖國保衛祖國英勇的鬥爭。
前進!前進!前進!
我們千秋萬代
高舉毛澤東旗幟,前進!
高舉毛澤東旗幟,前進!
前進!前進!進!

Qiánjìn! Gè mínzǔ yīngxióngde rénmín,
Wěidàde gòngchǎndǎng lǐngdǎo wǒmen jìxù chángzhēng.
Wànzhòng yīxīn bēn xiàng gòngchǎnzhǔyì míngtiān,
Jiànshè zǔgúo bǎowèi zǔgúo yīngyǒngde dòuzhēng.
Qiánjìn! Qiánjìn! Qiánjìn!
Wǒmen qiānqīu-wàndài
Gāojǔ Máo Zédōng qízhì, qiánjìn!
Gāojǔ Máo Zédōng qízhì, qiánjìn!
Qiánjìn! Qiánjìn! Jìn!

March on! Heroes of every races!
The great Communist Party leads us in continuing the Long March!
Millions with but one heart toward a communist tomorrow
Bravely struggle to develop and protect the motherland.
March on! March on! March on!
We will for many generations
Raise high Mao Zedong's banner! March on!
Raise high Mao Zedong's banner! March on!
March on! March on! On!

Trivia[change | change source]

  • In 1941, African American musician Paul Robeson recorded and sung both a Chinese and an English version of the song.[11][12]
  • In 1944, an instrumental version recorded by the Army Air Force Orchestra was played as the theme song for film Why We Fight VI: The Battle of China.
  • The Slovenian avant-garde band Laibach recorded an electronic version of this song in both English and Mandarin.[13]
  • British musician Damon Albarn created an upbeat version of this song.[14]
  • German musician Holger Czukay created a cut-up instrumental version of this song.
  • The third line of the first stanza in the lyrics of Glory to Hong Kong created during the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests makes a reference to the first line of March of the Volunteers.

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Resolution_on_the_Capital,_Calendar,_National_Anthem_and_National_Flag_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China Resolution on the Capital, Calendar, National Anthem, and National Flag of the People's Republic of China. First Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference in Beijing. 27 September 1949. (Hosted at Wikisource.)
  2. 2.0 2.1 https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Basic_Law_of_the_Hong_Kong_Special_Administrative_Region Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Annex III. Seventh National People's Congress in Beijing. 4 April 1990. (Hosted at Wikisource.)
  3. 3.0 3.1 https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Basic_Law_of_the_Macao_Special_Administrative_Region Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region, Annex III. Eighth National People's Congress in Beijing. 31 March 1993. (Hosted at Wikisource.)
  4. 4.0 4.1 https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Constitution_of_the_People%27s_Republic_of_China Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Amendment IV, §31. Tenth National People's Congress in Beijing. 14 March 2004. (Hosted at Wikisource.)
  5. https://books.google.com/books?id=OgO8DwAAQBAJ&pg=PT163&dq=起来!不愿做奴隶的人们!+把我们的血肉,筑成我们新的长城!+中华民族到了最危险的时候,+每个人被迫着发出最后的吼声%E3%80%82+起来!起来!起来!+我们万众一心,+冒着敌人的炮火,前进!+冒着敌人的炮火,前进!+前进!前进!进!&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj0m8CXpu3pAhVdRhUIHX14AAwQ6AEIKDAA#v=onepage&q=起来!不愿做奴隶的人们!%20把我们的血肉,筑成我们新的长城!%20中华民族到了最危险的时候,%20每个人被迫着发出最后的吼声%E3%80%82%20起来!起来!起来!%20我们万众一心,%20冒着敌人的炮火,前进!%20冒着敌人的炮火,前进!%20前进!前进!进!&f=false 《沈默的群山》。許祚祿著
    安徽文藝出版社。2016年1月1日。
  6. https://books.google.com/books?id=HaGPDQAAQBAJ&pg=PA11&dq=起来!不愿做奴隶的人们!+把我们的血肉,筑成我们新的长城!+中华民族到了最危险的时候,+每个人被迫着发出最后的吼声%E3%80%82+起来!起来!起来!+我们万众一心,+冒着敌人的炮火,前进!+冒着敌人的炮火,前进!+前进!前进!进!&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj0m8CXpu3pAhVdRhUIHX14AAwQ6AEILjAB#v=onepage&q=起来!不愿做奴隶的人们!%20把我们的血肉,筑成我们新的长城!%20中华民族到了最危险的时候,%20每个人被迫着发出最后的吼声%E3%80%82%20起来!起来!起来!%20我们万众一心,%20冒着敌人的炮火,前进!%20冒着敌人的炮火,前进!%20前进!前进!进!&f=false 《告别与重建: 读懂二十一世纪中国》。吴克立 著
    世界华语出版社。2016年11月22日。11页。
  7. http://www.gov.cn/guoqing/guoge/index.htm gov.cn.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Respect, the national anthem and the Basic Law. 25 March 2018. Webb-site Reports. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  9. https://web.archive.org/web/20070929123328/http://www.xdj.gov.cn/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=6675 存档副本. Retrieved 2007-04-12. Archived 2007-09-29.
  10. https://web.archive.org/web/20100901143054/http://baike.yp001.com/stamp_show.asp?id=160 邮币卡大百科 → 邮票 → J字邮票 → J.46:中华人民共和国成立三十周年(第三组). 邮票互动网. 2011-01-05. Archived 2010-09-01.
  11. https://politicalfolkmusic.org/wordpress/paul-robeson-march-of-the-volunteers Paul Robeson's album "Chee Lai!". Audio hosted at the Internet Archive. Lyrics and sheet music hosted at Political Folk Music. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  12. Bonner, David. Revolutionizing Children's Records: 1946–1977, pp. 47 f. Scarecrow Press (Plymouth), 2008.
  13. https://www.allmusic.com/album/volk-limited-edition-mw0000573590 Anderson, Rick. Laibach: Volk. AllMusic (San Francisco), 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  14. https://www.bbc.co.uk/music/reviews/3qp2 Jones, Chris. Monkey: Journey to the West Review. BBC Music (London), 2008. Retrieved 18 December 2011.