Maria Theresa

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Maria Theresa
Kaiserin Maria Theresia (HRR).jpg
Portrait by Martin van Meytens, 1759
Holy Roman Empress
German Queen
Tenure 13 September 1745 – 18 August 1765
Archduchess of Austria
Queen of Hungary and Croatia
Reign 20 October 1740 – 29 November 1780
Coronation 25 June 1741
Predecessor Charles III
Successor Joseph II
Queen of Bohemia
Reign 20 October 1740 – 19 December 1741
Predecessor Charles II
Successor Charles Albert
Reign 12 May 1743 – 29 November 1780
Coronation 12 May 1743
Predecessor Charles Albert
Successor Joseph II
Born (1717-05-13)13 May 1717
Hofburg Palace, Vienna, Austria
Died 29 November 1780(1780-11-29) (aged 63)
Hofburg Palace, Vienna, Austria
Burial Imperial Crypt, Vienna
Spouse Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
(m. 1736; d. 1765)
Issue
Full name
Maria Theresia Walburga Amalia Christina
House Habsburg
Father Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature Maria Theresa's signature

Maria Theresa of Austria (May 13, 1717November 29, 1780) was the only female head of the Habsburg Dynasty. She was the Holy Roman Empress, queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and archduchess of Austria. During her rule she changed the royal palace outside Vienna (the Austrian capital) to look much like Versailles. Vienna itself became an important center for the arts, especially music. Maria Theresa added support to her absolute power by tightening her hold on the government. She also improved conditions for the peasants. She is generally known to history as the Empress Maria Theresa.

Biography[change | change source]

Maria Theresa of Austria in 1772.

Maria Theresa was born in Vienna, Austria, on May 13, 1717. Her parents were Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor and Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Her father had made the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, a decree which allowed a female ruler despite the Salic law prohibition.

Maria Theresa married Duke Francis Stephan I of Lorraine for love. They had sixteen children who are named here:

Maria Theresa died in Vienna, Austria, on November 29, 1780. She was the Archduchess of Austria and queen of Bohemia and Hungary. Oldest daughter of Charles VI.