Meitei mythology

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A tableau of Manipur, depicting the divine mythical creatures, like Hiyang Hiren and Pakhangba, from Meitei mythology, in a Republic Day Parade of India, in New Delhi

Meitei mythology or Manipuri mythology is a collection of myths about the religious and cultural traditions of the Meitei people, the largest ethnic group of Manipur. Meitei myths are a part of Meitei culture (Manipuri culture) and explain various natural phenomena, how the human civilization developed, and the reasons of many things happening. Most of the Meitei legends are found in the Meitei language (Manipuri language) books.[1][2][3][4]

Textual sources[change | change source]

Mythical narration plays an important role in nearly every ways of Meitei literature. Some of the best known literary sources are:

Ancient texts Description
Khongjomnubi Nongarol Story of six girls turning into the Pleiades in the sky[5][6][7]
Konthoujam Nongarol Story of Goddess Konthoujam Tampha Lairembi[8][9]
Leishemlon Story of the creation of the universe[10][11][12]
Leithak Leikharol Story of the creation, genealogy of kings, moral teachings and mythology[13][14][15][16]
Panthoibi Khongul Story of that romantic adventure of Goddess Panthoibi and God Nongpok Ningthou[17][18][19]
Phouoibi Waron Story of many lovers of Goddess Phouoibi[20][21][22][23][24]
Poireiton Khunthok Story of the human civilization on earth led by Poireiton and Leinaotabi from the underworld.[25][26][27][28][29][30]
Sakok Lamlen Story of a sequel to the myth expounded in the Leithak Leikharol[31][32][33][34]

Mythical beings[change | change source]

Mythical beings include gods, goddesses, mythical creatures and many others.

References[change | change source]

  1. Hodson, Thomas Callan (2016-05-17). The Meitheis. Creative Media Partners, LLC. ISBN 978-1-356-86725-7.
  2. Laisram, Rena (2009). Early Meitei History: Religion, Society and the Manipur Puyas. Akansha Publishing House. ISBN 978-81-8370-163-1.
  3. Roy, L. Somi (2021-06-21). And That Is Why... Manipuri Myths Retold. Penguin Random House India Private Limited. ISBN 978-93-91149-65-9.
  4. Devi, Dr Yumlembam Gopi. Glimpses of Manipuri Culture. ISBN 978-0-359-72919-7.
  5. Meitei, Sanjenbam Yaiphaba; Chaudhuri, Sarit K.; Arunkumar, M. C. (25 November 2020). The Cultural Heritage of Manipur. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-000-29637-2.
  6. Singh, Lamabam Damodar (2000). L. Kamal Singh. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-0856-8.
  7. Paniker, K. Ayyappa (29 August 1997). Medieval Indian Literature: Surveys and selections. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-0365-5.
  8. Paniker, K. Ayyappa (1997). Medieval Indian Literature: Surveys and selections. Sahitya Akademi. p. 334. ISBN 978-81-260-0365-5.
  9. Ray, Asok Kumar; Chakraborty, Satyabrata (2008). Society, Politics, and Development in North East India: Essays in Memory of Dr. Basudeb Datta Ray. Concept Publishing Company. p. 85. ISBN 978-81-8069-572-8.
  10. Singh, Moirangthem Kirti (1998). Recent Researches in Oriental Indological Studies: Including Meiteilogy. Parimal Publications.
  11. North East India History Association. Session (1995). Proceedings of North East India History Association. The Association.
  12. Green, Thomas A.; Svinth, Joseph R. (2010). Martial Arts of the World: An Encyclopedia of History and Innovation [2 volumes]: An Encyclopedia of History and Innovation. ABC-CLIO. p. 294. ISBN 978-1-59884-244-9.
  13. Paniker, K. Ayyappa (1997). Medieval Indian Literature: Surveys and selections. Sahitya Akademi. p. 334. ISBN 978-81-260-0365-5.
  14. Panchani, Chander Sheikhar (1987). Manipur, Religion, Culture, and Society. Konark Publishers. ISBN 978-81-220-0047-4.
  15. Singh, Moirangthem Kirti (1993). Folk Culture of Manipur. Manas Publications. ISBN 978-81-7049-063-0.
  16. Singh, Moirangthem Kirti (1988). Religion and Culture of Manipur. Manas Publications. ISBN 978-81-7049-021-0.
  17. Society and Economy in North-East India. Regency Publications. 2004. ISBN 978-81-87498-83-4.
  18. Zama, Margaret Ch (2013). Emerging Literatures from Northeast India: The Dynamics of Culture, Society and Identity. SAGE Publishing India. p. 79. ISBN 978-81-321-1746-9.
  19. North East India History Association. Session (2003). Proceedings of North East India History Association. The Association.
  20. Paniker, K. Ayyappa (1997). Medieval Indian Literature: Surveys and selections. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-0365-5.
  21. Meitei, Sanjenbam Yaiphaba; Chaudhuri, Sarit K.; Arunkumar, M. C. (2020-11-25). The Cultural Heritage of Manipur. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-000-29637-2.
  22. N.A (1959). MEDIEVAL INDIAN LITERATURE AN ANTHOLOGY VOL. 3. SAHITYA AKADEMI, NEW DELHI.
  23. Medieval Indian Literature: An Anthology. Sahitya Akademi. 1997. ISBN 9788126003655.
  24. Kalā: The Journal of Indian Art History Congress. The Congress. 1995.
  25. Singh, R.K. Jhalajit (1965). A Short History of Manipur. O.K. Store.
  26. North East India History Association. Session (1988). Proceedings of North East India History Association. The Association.
  27. Singh, R.K. Jhalajit (1975). Manipur. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
  28. Singh, R.K. Nimai (2017). neScholar Magazine Vol 03 Issue 03. NE Brothers Pvt. Limited. p. 63.
  29. Sen, Sipra (1992). Tribes and Castes of Manipur: Description and Select Bibliography. Mittal Publications. ISBN 978-81-7099-310-0.
  30. Singh, Wahengbam Ibohal (1986). The History of Manipur: An early period. Manipur Commercial Company.
  31. Singh, Ch Manihar (1996). A History of Manipuri Literature. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-0086-9.
  32. Rasheeduddin Khan; Indian Institute of Advanced Study (1987). Composite Culture of India and National Integration. Indian Institute of Advanced Study.
  33. Dasgupta, Kalyan Kumar; Bhattacharyya, Pranab Kumar; Choudhury, Rabin Dev (1988). Sraddhanjali, Studies in Ancient Indian History: D.C. Sircar Commemoration Volume. Sundeep Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-85067-10-0.
  34. Dena, Lal (1991). History of Modern Manipur, 1826-1949. Orbit Publishers-Distributors.