Most distant things

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Composite image of five galaxies clustered together just 600 million years after theBig Bang.[1]

This article lists the most distant things known to us, all of which are galaxies or energy sources inside galaxies. Their distances are described in two ways. redshift = z, and billion light years (Gly).

As of 2012, there are only about 50 possible objects z=8 or farther, and another 100 z=7 candidates.[2] Candidates vary in their notablity,[2] so not everything is included here. 1 Gly = 1 billion light-years = 109 ly.

Examples of the most distant things
Name Redshift
(z)
Distance
(Gly)
Type Notes
GN-z11 z = 11.09 13.39 Galaxy Confirmed galaxy[3]
EGSY8p7 z = 8.68 13.23 Galaxy Confirmed galaxy[4]
GRB 090423 z = 8.2 13.18 Gamma-ray burst [5][6]
EGS-zs8-1 z = 7.73 13.13 Galaxy Confirmed galaxy[7]
z7 GSD 3811 z = 7.66 13.11 Galaxy galaxy[8]
z8_GND_5296 z≅ 7.51 13.1 Galaxy Note the discrepancy between distance and red-shift.[9]
UDFj-39546284 z≅11.9 13.37 Protogalaxy This is a protogalaxy.[10][11]
MACS0647-JD z≅10.8 13.3 Galaxy or protogalaxy Candidate most distant galaxy.[12][13]
MACS J1149-JD z≅9.6 13.2[14] Galaxy or protogalaxy [15]
GRB 090429B z≅9.4 13.14 [16] Gamma-ray burst/progenitor/remnant [17]
UDFy-33436598 z≅8.6 Galaxy or protogalaxy [18]
GRB 090423 z≅8.2 13.035 Gamma-ray burst/progenitor/remnant [19]
BoRG-58 z≅8 Cluster or protocluster Protocluster candidate [20]
A1689-zD1 z≅7.6 13 Galaxy or protogalaxy Galaxy [21]
SXDF-NB1006-2 z≅7.215 12.91 Galaxy or protogalaxy Galaxy [22][23]
GN-108036 z≅7.213 12.91 Galaxy or protogalaxy Galaxy[23][24]
BDF-3299 z=7.109 12.9 Galaxy or protogalaxy, spectroscopic redshift. Vanzella et al. (2011), ApJ,730,35
ULAS J1120+0641 z≅7.085 12.9 [25] Quasar [26]
A1703 zD6 z≅7.045 12.89 Galaxy or protogalaxy [23]
BDF-521 z=7.008 12.89 Galaxy or protogalaxy, spectroscopic redshift. Vanzella et al. (2011), ApJ,730,35
IOK-1 z≅6.964 12.88 Galaxy or protogalaxy [23]
LAE J095950.99+021219.1 z≅6.944 Galaxy or protogalaxy Lyman-alpha emitter — Faint Galaxy[27]

  • UDFy-38135539 is the furthest confirmed object (spectroscopically analysed) at 13.1 Gly.

Related pages[change | change source]

Hubble looking into the past.

References[change | change source]

  1. "Hubble pinpoints furthest protocluster of galaxies ever seen". ESA/Hubble Press Release. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  2. 2.0 2.1 FirstGalaxies, Our latest results
  3. P. A. Oesch et al. (2016). "A Remarkably luminous galaxy at z = 11.1 measured with Hubble Space Telescope Grism spectroscopy". The Astrophysical Journal 819 (2): 129. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/819/2/129. 
  4. Adi Zitrin et al. (2015). "Lyman-alpha emission from a luminous z = 8.68 galaxy: implications for galaxies as tracers of cosmic reionization". The Astrophysical Journal 810: L12. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/810/1/L12. 
  5. NASA, New gamma-ray burst smashes cosmic distance record, 28 April 2009
  6. Tanvir N.R. et al. (2009). "A gamma-ray burst at a redshift of z~8.2". Nature 461 (7268): 1254. doi:10.1038/nature08459. PMID 19865165. 
  7. P.A. Oesch et al. (2015). "A Spectroscopic Redshift Measurement for a Luminous Lyman Break Galaxy at z = 7.730 using Keck/MOSFIRE". The Astrophysical Journal 804 (2): L30. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/804/2/L30. 
  8. Song M et al (2016). "Keck/MOSFIRE Spectroscopy of z = 7-8 Galaxies: Lyman-alpha Emission from a Galaxy at z = 7.66". arXiv:1602.02160 [astro-ph.GA]. 
  9. Finkelstein S.L. et al 2013. A galaxy rapidly forming stars 700 million years after the Big Bang at redshift 7.51". Nature. 502: 524. [1]
  10. Wall, Mike (December 12, 2012). "Ancient galaxy may be most distant ever seen". Space.com. Retrieved December 12, 2012. 13.75 Big Bang - 0.38 = 13.37
  11. HubbleSite, "NASA's Hubble finds most distant galaxy candidate ever seen in Universe", STScI-2011-05, 26 January 2011
  12. information@eso.org. "Hubble spots three magnified views of most distant known galaxy". www.spacetelescope.org.
  13. "CLASH: Three Strongly Lensed Images of a Candidate z ~ 11 Galaxy - BibSonomy". www.bibsonomy.org.
  14. "NASA - NASA Telescopes Spy Ultra-Distant Galaxy". www.nasa.gov.
  15. Zheng W. et al 2012. A magnified young galaxy from about 500 million years after the Big Bang. Nature 489 (7416): 406–408. [2]
  16. Penn State SCIENCE, "Cosmic explosion is new candidate for most distant object in the Universe", Derek. B. Fox , Barbara K. Kennedy , 25 May 2011
  17. Space Daily, Explosion helps researcher spot Universe's most distant object, 27 May 2011
  18. "The Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (annotated)". sci.esa.int.
  19. NASA, "New gamma-ray burst smashes cosmic distance record", 28 April 2009
  20. Trenti, Michele; Bradley, L. D.; Stiavelli, M.; Shull, J. M.; Oesch, P.; Bouwens, R. J.; Mu�oz, J. A.; Romano-Diaz, E. et al. (1 February 2012). "Overdensities of Y-dropout Galaxies from the Brightest-of-Reionizing Galaxies Survey: A Candidate Protocluster at Redshift z ≈ 8". The Astrophysical Journal 746: 55. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/746/1/55. http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ApJ...746...55T. 
  21. "heic0805: Hubble finds strong contender for galaxy distance record". ESA/Hubble. 2008-02-12. Archived from the original on 8 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-04. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  22. "TMT - SXDF-NB1006-2".
  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 "Press Release - Discovery of the Most Distant Galaxy in the Cosmic Dawn - Subaru Telescope". www.subarutelescope.org.
  24. "NASA - NASA Telescopes Help Find Rare Galaxy at Dawn of Time". www.nasa.gov.
  25. information@eso.org. "Most Distant Quasar Found". www.eso.org.
  26. Scientific American, "Brilliant, but distant: most far-flung known quasar offers glimpse into early universe", John Matson, 29 June 2011
  27. [https://arxiv.org/pdf/1205.3161v1.pdf "Rhoads, et al. - A Lyman-� Galaxy at Redshift z = 6:944 in the COSMOS Field"] (PDF). replacement character in |title= at position 26 (help)
  28. https://arxiv.org/PS_cache/astro-ph/pdf/0209/0209205v2.pdf
  29. Uson, Juan M. et al. (1990). "The central galaxy in Abell 2029 – an old supergiant". Science 250 (4980): 539–540. doi:10.1126/science.250.4980.539.