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Muammar al-Gaddafi

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Muammar Gaddafi
مُعَمَّر القَذَّافِي
Muammar al-Gaddafi at an African Union Summit in 2009
Leader and Guide of the Revolution
In office
1 September 1969 – 23 August 2011
Prime Minister
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byMustafa Abdul Jalil (Chairman of the National Transitional Council)
Secretary General of the General People's Congress of Libya
In office
2 March 1977 – 2 March 1979
Prime MinisterAbdul Ati al-Obeidi
Preceded byPosition established
Succeeded byAbdul Ati al-Obeidi
Prime Minister of Libya
In office
16 January 1970 – 16 July 1972
Preceded byMahmud Sulayman al-Maghribi
Succeeded byAbdessalam Jalloud
Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council of Libya
In office
1 September 1969 – 2 March 1977
Prime MinisterMahmud Sulayman al-Maghribi
Abdessalam Jalloud
Abdul Ati al-Obeidi
Preceded byIdris*
Succeeded byPosition abolished
Chairperson of the African Union
In office
2 February 2009 – 31 January 2010
Preceded byJakaya Kikwete
Succeeded byBingu wa Mutharika
Personal details
Born(1943-06-07)June 7, 1943
Qasr Abu Hadi, Italian Libya
DiedOctober 20, 2011(2011-10-20) (aged 68)
Sirt, Libya
Spouse(s)Fatiha al-Nuri (divorced)
Safia Farkash
(m. 1970–2011, his death)
Military service
AllegianceLibya Kingdom of Libya (1961–69)
Libya Libyan Arab Republic (1969–77)
Libya Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (1977–2011)
Branch/serviceLibyan Army
Years of service1961–2011
CommandsCommander-in-chief, Libyan Armed Forces
Battles/warsLibyan–Egyptian War
Chadian–Libyan conflict
Uganda–Tanzania War
2011 Libyan civil war

Muammar Muhammad Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi[4](Arabic: مُعَمَّر القَذَّافِي Muʿammar al-Qaḏḏāfī audio speaker iconaudio )[variations] (June 7 1942 - 20 October 2011) better known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan politician. He ruled Libya from 1969 to 2011.[5]

Early life[change | change source]

Muammar al-Gaddafi was born in a tent near Qasr Abu Hadi. His family came from a small tribal group called Qadhadhfa. His family were Arabized Berber people in heritage. He joined the Libyan military in 1961; the military was one of the few ways for lower class Libyans like him to rise in social status. He became a colonel.

Ruler of Libya[change | change source]

Gaddafi became head of state of Libya after removing King Idris from power in a 1969 bloodless coup. He ruled Libya from September 1, 1969 to August 23, 2011. After the coup, Gaddafi established the Libyan Arab Republic.[6] He was one of the longest-serving non royal rulers in history, because he had ruled for more than 41 years.[7] Gaddafi used Arab socialist and Arab nationalist ideas. He published a book about his philosophical views in 1975. This book is commonly known as The Green Book. In 1977, he left the power of Libya, and continued playing role of revolutionary. People called him the "Brother Leader and Guide of the Revolution".[8][9]

The Libyan Arab Republic was renamed to the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya in 1977 later it was renamed again to the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya by Gaddafi in 1986.

In the 1980s, he made chemical weapons, because of it critics called Libya a pariah state.[10][11] A Dutch investigation found that Gaddafi had built up a "billion-dollar empire", from assets in an international company in the oil industry. It also claims that his assets are scattered throughout much of Europe,[12] Despite no trace or proof for even 1 billion have been found.[13] Gaddafi had a strong interest in geo-political control, was a firm supporter of [OPEC] and led a Pan-African campaign for a United States of Africa.[14] In 1986 Libya was bombed by the United States, the home of Gaddafi was also targeted but he survived. The bombing was condemned by many nations and also by UN.[15]

In 1988, the United Nations put economic sanctions onto Libya. Gaddafi started to have closer economic and security relations with the West. He cooperated with investigations into alleged Libyan anti-western acts, by 1999 he offered to dismantle weapon of mass destruction of Libya, which would be inspected in 2003. As a result, the UN sanctions were lifted in the same year.

Gaddafi was elected Chairperson of the African Union in 2009.

2011 Libyan protests[change | change source]

In February 2011 there were major violent protests against Libyan government. These came alongside other demonstrations in Tunisia, Egypt, and other parts of the Arab world. The protests quickly turned into a civil war. Gaddafi vowed to "die a martyr" if necessary in his fight against rebels and external forces; he also said that "peaceful protest is one thing but armed rebellion is another."[16][17][18][19]

Accusal of Crimes[change | change source]

On 17 May 2011 the International Criminal Court issued a request for an arrest warrant against Gaddafi for alleged crimes against humanity,[20] which was approved on 27 June and a warrant was issued by the court.[21] In June 2011, according to investigation made by Amnesty International, it was found that there was no evidence for many of the alleged crimes, and that the rebels had falsely blamed Gaddafi as well as the government.[22] He was accused of ordering the Lockerbie bombing in Scotland that killed over 200 people. The bombing targeted a civilian plane and it was downed.[23]

Downfall and Death[change | change source]

Gaddafi faced a tumultuous downfall in 2011 during the Arab Spring. Protests and rebel forces opposed his rule, leading to a NATO intervention. Gaddafi's forces clashed with rebels, and he eventually fled Tripoli. The Libyan Civil War (2011) erupted in February. The aim was to remove Gaddafi from power. Gaddafi was captured alive and killed by NATO backed rebels in Sirte, Libya, on 20 October 2011.[24][25] Sirte was the last stronghold of the Gaddafi regime, marking the end of his authoritarian regime.

References[change | change source]

  1. "Nato strike 'kills Saif al-Arab Gaddafi', Libya says". BBC News. 1 May 2011.
  2. 2.0 2.1 "Nato strike 'kills Gaddafi's youngest son'". www.aljazeera.com.
  3. "NBC's Mitchell Regurgitates Gaddafi Lies". Accuracy in Media. 22 February 2011. Archived from the original on 16 June 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  4. "Al-Qadhafi, Muammar Muhammad". Oxford Dictionary of Political Biography
  5. Barker, Anne (2011). "Gaddafi captured, killed in Sirte - ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)". abc.net.au. Retrieved 21 October 2011.
  6. Salak, Kira. "National Geographic article about Libya". National Geographic Adventure.
  7. Charles Féraud, "Annales Tripolitaines", the Arabic version named "Al Hawliyat Al Libiya", translated to Arabic by Mohammed Abdel Karim El Wafi, Dar el Ferjani, Tripoli, Libya, vol. 3, p.797.
  8. Daniel Don Nanjira, African Foreign Policy and Diplomacy: From Antiquity to the 21st Century, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2010, p. 279 n. 2
  9. Background Notes, (November 2005) "Libya – History", United States Department of State. Retrieved on 14 July 2006.
  10. Campbellwinter 1987/88, John C. (28 January 2009). "Qaddafi and the Libyan Revolution; The Making of a Pariah State: The Adventurist Policies of Muammar Qaddafi". No. Winter 1987/88 – via www.foreignaffairs.com. {{cite magazine}}: Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  11. Keller, Paul (6 January 2004). "Libya's two decades as pariah state". BBC News.
  12. "Gaddafi's Dutch millions, Radio Netherlands Worldwide". Rnw.nl. 24 February 2011. Archived from the original on 27 February 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  13. Robinson, Jeffrey (26 August 2011). "Muammar Gaddafi Hid Billions of Dollars, but No One Can Find It". The Daily Beast – via www.thedailybeast.com.
  14. "Gaddafi: Africa's 'king of kings'". BBC News. 29 August 2008. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
  15. "A/RES/41/38. Declaration of the assembly of heads of state and government of the organization of African Unity on the aerial and naval military attack against the Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya by the present United States administration in april 1986". www.un.org.
  16. Sputnik (22 February 2011). "Defiant Gaddafi vows to fight on, crush protests". sputniknews.com.
  17. "Protesters deserve to die, Gaddafi says". gulfnews.com.
  18. "Gaddafi defiant as state teeters – Africa". Al Jazeera English. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
  19. "Middle East and North Africa unrest". BBC News. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  20. ICC requests Gaddafi arrest warrant
  21. "Libya: ICC issues arrest warrant for Muammar Gaddafi".
  22. "Media Lens - Media Lens". www.medialens.org. 29 June 2011.
  23. "Colonel Gaddafi 'ordered Lockerbie bombing'". BBC News. 23 February 2011.
  24. "Muammar Gaddafi killed in Sirte". Al Jazeera English. 2011-10-20. Retrieved 2011-10-20.
  25. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15390980 BBC News Africa