Nebuchadnezzar II (about 634 – 562 BC) was king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire, and reigned ~605 BC – 562 BC.
According to the Bible, he conquered Judah and Jerusalem, and sent the Jews into exile. He is featured in the Book of Daniel and is mentioned in several other books of the Bible. He (allegedly) destroyed Solomon's Temple.
He is said to have built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. The king built the hanging gardens in attempt to please his wife. His kingdom had a great flow of trade and prosperity. However, some scholars argue that the Gardens may have been constructed by the Assyrian king Sennacherib in his capital city, Nineveh.