In ancient Greek religion, Nemesis (Ancient Greek: Νέμεσις), is the goddess who takes vengeance against those who show hubris (arrogance before the gods).
Divine retribution is a major theme in the Hellenic world view. It is the unifying theme of the tragedies of Sophocles and many other literary works.
She carried a measuring rod (a tally stick), a bridle, scales, a sword, and a scourge (whip), and she rides in a chariot drawn by griffins.
Nemesis often is seen with another goddess named Aidos. Aidos is the goddess of shame. She is similar to Nemesis.
The Ancient Greek made different meanings for what they called "justice":
- Nemesis (as a goddess who gives to each what they deserve)
- Dike (to be in charge of what we would call civil law today)
- Dikaiosyne ("a just state," where the word justice comes from, meaning that everything is fair in their country)
- Nomos (a law made by the government)
In works of fiction the hero's nemesis is usually the villain and the hardest antagonist for the hero to defeat.
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