Nitrogen

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{{{left}}} ← nitrogen → {{{right}}}
{{{above}}}

N

{{{below}}}
Appearance
{{{appearance}}}
General properties
Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7
Pronunciation /ˈntrəən/ NY-trə-jən
Group, period, block [[group {{{group}}} element|{{{group}}}]], [[period {{{period}}} element|{{{period}}}]], [[{{{block}}}-block|{{{block}}}]]
Standard atomic weight 14.007(1)g/mol
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p3
Electrons per shell 2, 5 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)
1.251 g/L
Liquid density at b.p. 0.808 g/cm3
Melting point 63.15 K, -210.00 °C, -346.00 °F
Boiling point 77.36 K, -195.79 °C, -320.33 °F
Triple point 63.1526 K (-210°C), 12.53 kPa
Critical point 126.19 K, 3.3978 MPa
Heat of fusion (N2) 0.72 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization (N2) 5.56 kJ/mol
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) (N2)
29.124 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 37 41 46 53 62 77
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -3
(strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 3.04 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies
1st: 1402.3 kJ/mol
2nd: 2856 kJ/mol
3rd: 4578.1 kJ/mol
Covalent radius 71±1 pm
Van der Waals radius 155 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 25.83 × 10−3 W/(m·K)
Speed of sound (gas, 27 °C) 353 m/s
CAS registry number 7727-37-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of nitrogen
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
13N syn 9.965 min ε 2.220 13C
14N 99.634% 14N is stable with 7 neutrons
15N 0.366% 15N is stable with 8 neutrons

Nitrogen is a Group 15 element. Nitrogen makes up about 78% of the atmosphere by volume but the atmosphere of Mars contains less than 3% nitrogen. The element seemed so inert that Lavoisier named it azote, meaning "without life". However, its compounds are vital components of foods, fertilizers, and explosives. Nitrogen gas is colourless, odourless, and generally inert. As a liquid it is also colourless and odourless.

When nitrogen is heated, it combines directly with magnesium, lithium, or calcium. When mixed with oxygen and subjected to electric sparks, it forms nitric oxide (NO) and then the dioxide (NO2). When heated under pressure with hydrogen in the presence of a suitable catalyst , ammonia forms (Haber process). Nitrogen is "fixed" from the atmosphere by bacteria in the roots of certain plants such as clover. Hence the usefulness of clover in crop rotation.

  • Name: nitrogen
  • Symbol: N
  • Atomic number: 7
  • Relative atomic mass (Ar): 14.0067 (2) [see notes g r]
  • Standard state: gas at 298 K
  • Colour: colourless
  • Classification: Non-metallic
  • Group in periodic table: 15
  • Group name: Pnictogen
  • Period in periodic table: 2
  • Block in periodic table: p-block
  • Electron shell structure: 2.5
  • CAS Registry ID: 7727-37-9

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{{{left}}} ← nitrogen → {{{right}}}
{{{above}}}

N↓ {{{below}}}

7N

Periodic table

Appearance
{{{appearance}}}
General properties
Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7
Pronunciation /ˈnaɪtrədʒən/ ny-trə-jən
Group, period, block [[group {{{group}}} element|{{{group}}}]], [[period {{{period}}} element|{{{period}}}]], [[{{{block}}}-block|{{{block}}}]]
Standard atomic weight 14.007(1) g/mol
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p3
Electrons per shell 2, 5 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)

1.251 g/L

Liquid density at b.p. 0.808 g/cm3
Melting point 63.15 K, -210.00 °C, -346.00 °F
Boiling point 77.36 K, -195.79 °C, -320.33 °F
Triple point 63.1526 K (-210°C), 12.53 kPa
Critical point 126.19 K, 3.3978 MPa
Heat of fusion (N2) 0.72 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization (N2) 5.56 kJ/mol
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) (N2)

29.124 J/(mol·K)

Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 37 41 46 53 62 77
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -3

(strongly acidic oxide)

Electronegativity 3.04 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 1402.3 kJ/mol
2nd: 2856 kJ/mol
3rd: 4578.1 kJ/mol
Covalent radius 71±1 pm
Van der Waals radius 155 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 25.83 × 10−3 W/(m·K)
Speed of sound (gas, 27 °C) 353 m/s
CAS registry number 7727-37-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of nitrogen
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
13N syn 9.965 min ε 2.220 13C
14N 99.634% 14N is stable with 7 neutrons
15N 0.366% 15N is stable with 8 neutrons
  • v
  • t
  • e
{{{left}}} ← nitrogen → {{{right}}}
{{{above}}}N{{{below}}}

7N

Periodic table

Appearance
{{{appearance}}}
General properties
Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7
Pronunciation /ˈnaɪtrədʒən/ ny-trə-jən
Group, period, block [[group {{{group}}} element|{{{group}}}]], [[period {{{period}}} element|{{{period}}}]], [[{{{block}}}-block|{{{block}}}]]
Standard atomic weight 14.007(1) g/mol
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p3
Electrons per shell 2, 5 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)1.251 g/L
Liquid density at b.p. 0.808 g/cm3
Melting point 63.15 K, -210.00 °C, -346.00 °F
Boiling point 77.36 K, -195.79 °C, -320.33 °F
Triple point 63.1526 K (-210°C), 12.53 kPa
Critical point 126.19 K, 3.3978 MPa
Heat of fusion (N2) 0.72 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization (N2) 5.56 kJ/mol
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) (N2)29.124 J/(mol·K)
Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 37 41 46 53 62 77
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -3(strongly acidic oxide)
Electronegativity 3.04 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 1402.3 kJ/mol
2nd: 2856 kJ/mol
3rd: 4578.1 kJ/mol
Covalent radius 71±1 pm
Van der Waals radius 155 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 25.83 × 10−3 W/(m·K)
Speed of sound (gas, 27 °C) 353 m/s
CAS registry number 7727-37-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of nitrogen
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
13N syn 9.965 min ε 2.220 13C
14N 99.634% 14N is stable with 7 neutrons
15N 0.366% 15N is stable with 8 neutrons
  • v
  • t
  • e
{{{left}}} ← nitrogen → {{{right}}}
{{{above}}}

N↓ {{{below}}}

7N

Periodic table

Appearance
{{{appearance}}}
General properties
Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7
Pronunciation /ˈnaɪtrədʒən/ ny-trə-jən
Group, period, block [[group {{{group}}} element|{{{group}}}]], [[period {{{period}}} element|{{{period}}}]], [[{{{block}}}-block|{{{block}}}]]
Standard atomic weight 14.007(1) g/mol
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p3
Electrons per shell 2, 5 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)

1.251 g/L

Liquid density at b.p. 0.808 g/cm3
Melting point 63.15 K, -210.00 °C, -346.00 °F
Boiling point 77.36 K, -195.79 °C, -320.33 °F
Triple point 63.1526 K (-210°C), 12.53 kPa
Critical point 126.19 K, 3.3978 MPa
Heat of fusion (N2) 0.72 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization (N2) 5.56 kJ/mol
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) (N2)

29.124 J/(mol·K)

Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 37 41 46 53 62 77
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -3

(strongly acidic oxide)

Electronegativity 3.04 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 1402.3 kJ/mol
2nd: 2856 kJ/mol
3rd: 4578.1 kJ/mol
Covalent radius 71±1 pm
Van der Waals radius 155 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 25.83 × 10−3 W/(m·K)
Speed of sound (gas, 27 °C) 353 m/s
CAS registry number 7727-37-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of nitrogen
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
13N syn 9.965 min ε 2.220 13C
14N 99.634% 14N is stable with 7 neutrons
15N 0.366% 15N is stable with 8 neutrons
  • v
  • t
  • e
{{{left}}} ← nitrogen → {{{right}}}
{{{above}}}

N↓ {{{below}}}

7N

Periodic table

Appearance
{{{appearance}}}
General properties
Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7
Pronunciation /ˈnaɪtrədʒən/ ny-trə-jən
Group, period, block [[group {{{group}}} element|{{{group}}}]], [[period {{{period}}} element|{{{period}}}]], [[{{{block}}}-block|{{{block}}}]]
Standard atomic weight 14.007(1) g/mol
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p3
Electrons per shell 2, 5 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)

1.251 g/L

Liquid density at b.p. 0.808 g/cm3
Melting point 63.15 K, -210.00 °C, -346.00 °F
Boiling point 77.36 K, -195.79 °C, -320.33 °F
Triple point 63.1526 K (-210°C), 12.53 kPa
Critical point 126.19 K, 3.3978 MPa
Heat of fusion (N2) 0.72 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization (N2) 5.56 kJ/mol
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) (N2)

29.124 J/(mol·K)

Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 37 41 46 53 62 77
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -3

(strongly acidic oxide)

Electronegativity 3.04 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 1402.3 kJ/mol
2nd: 2856 kJ/mol
3rd: 4578.1 kJ/mol
Covalent radius 71±1 pm
Van der Waals radius 155 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 25.83 × 10−3 W/(m·K)
Speed of sound (gas, 27 °C) 353 m/s
CAS registry number 7727-37-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of nitrogen
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
13N syn 9.965 min ε 2.220 13C
14N 99.634% 14N is stable with 7 neutrons
15N 0.366% 15N is stable with 8 neutrons
  • v
  • t
  • e
{{{left}}} ← nitrogen → {{{right}}}
{{{above}}}

N↓ {{{below}}}

7N

Periodic table

Appearance
{{{appearance}}}
General properties
Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7
Pronunciation /ˈnaɪtrədʒən/ ny-trə-jən
Group, period, block [[group {{{group}}} element|{{{group}}}]], [[period {{{period}}} element|{{{period}}}]], [[{{{block}}}-block|{{{block}}}]]
Standard atomic weight 14.007(1) g/mol
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p3
Electrons per shell 2, 5 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)

1.251 g/L

Liquid density at b.p. 0.808 g/cm3
Melting point 63.15 K, -210.00 °C, -346.00 °F
Boiling point 77.36 K, -195.79 °C, -320.33 °F
Triple point 63.1526 K (-210°C), 12.53 kPa
Critical point 126.19 K, 3.3978 MPa
Heat of fusion (N2) 0.72 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization (N2) 5.56 kJ/mol
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) (N2)

29.124 J/(mol·K)

Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 37 41 46 53 62 77
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -3

(strongly acidic oxide)

Electronegativity 3.04 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 1402.3 kJ/mol
2nd: 2856 kJ/mol
3rd: 4578.1 kJ/mol
Covalent radius 71±1 pm
Van der Waals radius 155 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 25.83 × 10−3 W/(m·K)
Speed of sound (gas, 27 °C) 353 m/s
CAS registry number 7727-37-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of nitrogen
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
13N syn 9.965 min ε 2.220 13C
14N 99.634% 14N is stable with 7 neutrons
15N 0.366% 15N is stable with 8 neutrons
  • v
  • t
  • e
{{{left}}} ← nitrogen → {{{right}}}
{{{above}}}

N↓ {{{below}}}

7N

Periodic table

Appearance
{{{appearance}}}
General properties
Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7
Pronunciation /ˈnaɪtrədʒən/ ny-trə-jən
Group, period, block [[group {{{group}}} element|{{{group}}}]], [[period {{{period}}} element|{{{period}}}]], [[{{{block}}}-block|{{{block}}}]]
Standard atomic weight 14.007(1) g/mol
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p3
Electrons per shell 2, 5 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)

1.251 g/L

Liquid density at b.p. 0.808 g/cm3
Melting point 63.15 K, -210.00 °C, -346.00 °F
Boiling point 77.36 K, -195.79 °C, -320.33 °F
Triple point 63.1526 K (-210°C), 12.53 kPa
Critical point 126.19 K, 3.3978 MPa
Heat of fusion (N2) 0.72 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization (N2) 5.56 kJ/mol
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) (N2)

29.124 J/(mol·K)

Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 37 41 46 53 62 77
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -3

(strongly acidic oxide)

Electronegativity 3.04 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 1402.3 kJ/mol
2nd: 2856 kJ/mol
3rd: 4578.1 kJ/mol
Covalent radius 71±1 pm
Van der Waals radius 155 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 25.83 × 10−3 W/(m·K)
Speed of sound (gas, 27 °C) 353 m/s
CAS registry number 7727-37-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of nitrogen
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
13N syn 9.965 min ε 2.220 13C
14N 99.634% 14N is stable with 7 neutrons
15N 0.366% 15N is stable with 8 neutrons
  • v
  • t
  • e
{{{left}}} ← nitrogen → {{{right}}}
{{{above}}}

N↓ {{{below}}}

7N

Periodic table

Appearance
{{{appearance}}}
General properties
Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7
Pronunciation /ˈnaɪtrədʒən/ ny-trə-jən
Group, period, block [[group {{{group}}} element|{{{group}}}]], [[period {{{period}}} element|{{{period}}}]], [[{{{block}}}-block|{{{block}}}]]
Standard atomic weight 14.007(1) g/mol
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p3
Electrons per shell 2, 5 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)

1.251 g/L

Liquid density at b.p. 0.808 g/cm3
Melting point 63.15 K, -210.00 °C, -346.00 °F
Boiling point 77.36 K, -195.79 °C, -320.33 °F
Triple point 63.1526 K (-210°C), 12.53 kPa
Critical point 126.19 K, 3.3978 MPa
Heat of fusion (N2) 0.72 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization (N2) 5.56 kJ/mol
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) (N2)

29.124 J/(mol·K)

Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 37 41 46 53 62 77
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -3

(strongly acidic oxide)

Electronegativity 3.04 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 1402.3 kJ/mol
2nd: 2856 kJ/mol
3rd: 4578.1 kJ/mol
Covalent radius 71±1 pm
Van der Waals radius 155 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 25.83 × 10−3 W/(m·K)
Speed of sound (gas, 27 °C) 353 m/s
CAS registry number 7727-37-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of nitrogen
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
13N syn 9.965 min ε 2.220 13C
14N 99.634% 14N is stable with 7 neutrons
15N 0.366% 15N is stable with 8 neutrons
  • v
  • t
  • e
{{{left}}} ← nitrogen → {{{right}}}
{{{above}}}

N↓ {{{below}}}

7N

Periodic table

Appearance
{{{appearance}}}
General properties
Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7
Pronunciation /ˈnaɪtrədʒən/ ny-trə-jən
Group, period, block [[group {{{group}}} element|{{{group}}}]], [[period {{{period}}} element|{{{period}}}]], [[{{{block}}}-block|{{{block}}}]]
Standard atomic weight 14.007(1) g/mol
Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p3
Electrons per shell 2, 5 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase gas
Density (0 °C, 101.325 kPa)

1.251 g/L

Liquid density at b.p. 0.808 g/cm3
Melting point 63.15 K, -210.00 °C, -346.00 °F
Boiling point 77.36 K, -195.79 °C, -320.33 °F
Triple point 63.1526 K (-210°C), 12.53 kPa
Critical point 126.19 K, 3.3978 MPa
Heat of fusion (N2) 0.72 kJ/mol
Heat of vaporization (N2) 5.56 kJ/mol
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) (N2)

29.124 J/(mol·K)

Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 37 41 46 53 62 77
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -3

(strongly acidic oxide)

Electronegativity 3.04 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 1402.3 kJ/mol
2nd: 2856 kJ/mol
3rd: 4578.1 kJ/mol
Covalent radius 71±1 pm
Van der Waals radius 155 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure hexagonal
Magnetic ordering diamagnetic
Thermal conductivity (300 K) 25.83 × 10−3 W/(m·K)
Speed of sound (gas, 27 °C) 353 m/s
CAS registry number 7727-37-9
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of nitrogen
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
13N syn 9.965 min ε 2.220 13C
14N 99.634% 14N is stable with 7 neutrons
15N 0.366% 15N is stable with 8 neutrons
  • v
  • t
  • e