Numen, pl. numina, is a Latin term. It is used for "divinity", a "divine presence" or a "divine will." The Latin authors defined it as follows. Cicero writes of a "divine mind" (divina mens), a god "whose numen everything obeys," and a "divine power" (vis divina) "which pervades the lives of men." It causes the motions and cries of birds during augury. In his Aeneid, Virgil tells about the how the one-eyed giant, Polyphemus, is blinded: First, Odysseus and his men "ask for the assistance of the great numina" (magna precati numina). Reviewing public opinion of Augustus on the day of his funeral, the historian Tacitus reports that some thought "no honor was left to the gods" when he "established the cult of himself" (se ... coli vellet) "with temples and the effigies of numina" (effigie numinum). Pliny the younger in a letter to Paternus raves about the "power," the "dignity," and "the majesty;" in short, the "numen of history." Lucretius uses the expression numen mentis, or "bidding of the mind," where "bidding" is numen, not, however, the divine numen, unless the mind is to be considered divine, but as simply human will.
Since the early 20th century, numen has sometimes been treated in the history of religion as a pre-animistic phase. This is a belief system that comes from an earlier time. Sociologists also use the term Numen to refer to the idea of magical power coming from an object, particularly when writing about ideas in the western tradition. When used in this sense, numen means almost the same thing as mana. However, some authors only use the word mana for ideas about magic from Polynesia and Southeast Asia.
Etymology[change | change source]
The literal meaning is simply "a nod", or more accurately,"that which is produced by nodding". In the same way, flamen is "that which is produced by blowing", i.e., a gust of wind. It came to mean "the product or expression of power" — not, be it noted, power itself.
Numen (divinity) is not personified (although it can be a personal attribute) and should be distinguished from deus (god).
Roman cults of the numina[change | change source]
Numen was also used in the imperial cult of ancient Rome, to refer to the guardian-spirit, 'godhead' or divine power of a living emperor. It was a way of worshiping a living emperor without literally calling him a god.
Definition as a pre-animistic phase of religion[change | change source]
The expression Numen inest appears in Ovid's Fasti (III, 296) and has been translated as 'There is a spirit here'. Its interpretation, and the exact sense of numen has been discussed extensively in the literature.
Some people thought, that numen could have been a leftover of ealier animist religions which was incorporated into the Roman religion. Sometimes the etymology of Latin names for deities, has often been popularly implied, but it was criticised as "mostly a scholarly fiction" by McGeough (2004).
Numina and specific religions[change | change source]
In popular culture[change | change source]
In modern times, the term (referring to the Christian God) has been used in various expressions:
- Innocue vivito, numen adest (Live blameless; God is here.) was the motto of Carl Linnaeus, taken from Ovid's Ars Amatoria (I, 640).
- Nil sine numine is the state motto of Colorado. Its origin could be the phrase "...non haec sine numine divum eveniunt" (...these things do not come to pass without the will of Heaven) from Virgil's Aeneid (II, 777).
- Benigno numine (with divine favor) is the motto of the city of Pittsburgh.
- Numen lumen (God is the light) is the motto of the University of Wisconsin–Madison and Elon University.
- The term numen appears three times (142.23, 162.13, 282.21) in James Joyce's Finnegans Wake.
Related pages[change | change source]
References[change | change source]
- For a more extensive account, refer to "numen". A Latin Dictionary (in Latin). Perseus Digital Library.
- Cicero. "De Divinatione". Loeb Classical Library; penelope.uchicago.edu. I.119-120. Marci Tulli Ciceronis. "De divinatione Prior" (in Latin). The Latin Library. I.119-120.
- C. Cornelius Tacitus. "Annales" (in Latin). Perseus Digital Library. 1.10.
- C. Plinius Cæcilius Secundus. "Letters" (in Latin). Perseus Digital Library. 9.27.1.
- Lucretius; R. Allison, Translator (1919). On the Nature of Things. London: Arthur Humphries.
- Rose, H. J. (1926). Primitive Culture in Italy. Methuen & Co. pp. 44–45.
- Bailey, Cyril (1907). The Religion of Ancient Rome. Archibald Constable & Co Ltd., freely available from Project Gutenberg
- Fishwick, Duncan (July 1969). "Genius and Numen". Harvard Theological Review. 62 (3): 356–367. doi:10.1017/s0017816000032405. Reprinted in Fishwick, D. (1990).
- Fishwick, Duncan (May 1970). "'Numina Augustorum". The Classical Quarterly. New Series. 20 (1): 191–197. doi:10.1017/s0009838800044773. Reprinted in Fishwick, D. (1990).
- Rose, Herbert Jennings (October 1935). "Nvmen inest: 'Animism' in Greek and Roman Religion". Harvard Theological Review. 28 (4): 237–257. doi:10.1017/s0017816000023026.
- Gottfried Kreuz; Pseudo-Hilary (2006). Pseudo-Hilarius Metrum in Genesin, Carmen de Evangelio: Einleitung, Text und Kommentar. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. ISBN 978-3-7001-3790-0. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- Pavlovskis, Zoja (December 1989). "The Pastoral World of Hilarius' "in Genesin"". The Classical Journal. 85 (2): 121–132.
- Benjamin Daydon Jackson; Theodor Magnus Fries (22 December 2011). Linnaeus. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-108-03723-5. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
- University of Wisconsin-Madison Unified. "Numen Lumen / School Motto". Kb.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2017-01-05.
- Clive Hart; James Joyce (1974). A concordance to Finnegans wake. P. P. Appel. Retrieved 9 April 2012.
Further reading[change | change source]
- Fishwick, Duncan (1990). The Imperial Cult in the Latin West. Brill.
- Rudolf Otto (October 2004). The Idea of the Holy: An Inquiry Into the Non Rational Factor in the Idea of the Divine 1926. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4179-7875-5. Retrieved 9 April 2012.