October 30 is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 62 days remaining until the end of the year.
758 - Guangzhou is sacked by Arab and Persian pirates.
1226 - Tran Thu Do, head of the Tran clan of Vietnam, forces Ly Hue Tong, the last emperor of the Ly Dynasty, to commit suicide.
1270 - The Eighth Crusade and Siege of Tunis end by an agreement between Charles I of Sicily and the Sultan of Tunis.
1340 - Portuguese and Castilian forces halt a Marinid invasion in the Battle of Rio Soldado.
1470 – Henry VI of England returns to the English throne after Earl of Warwick defeats Yorkists in battle.
1485 – Henry VII of England is crowned King.
1534 - The English Parliament passes the Act of Supremacy, making King Henry VIII of England head of the English Church, a title previously held by the Pope.
1657 - Spanish forces fail to retake Jamaica at the Battle of Ocho Rios during the Anglo-Spanish War.
1813 - French troops surrender at Pamplona, ending Spain's War of Independence.
1817 - The independent government of Venezuela is formed by Simon Bolivar.
1831 - Nat Turner, who led the Slave Rebellion, is detained.
1863 - Danish Prince Wilhelm arrives in Athens to become King George I of Greece.
1864 - The Second War of Schleswig ends: Denmark surrenders its claim to Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg, which come under Prussian and Austrian control.
1864 – Helena, Montana is founded after four prospectors discover gold at "Last Chance Gulch."
1880 - Tegucigalpa becomes the capital city of Honduras.
1905 – Tsar Nicholas II of Russia grants Russia's first constitution, creating a legislative assembly.
1918 – The Ottoman Empire signs an armistice with the Allies, ending the First World War in the Middle East.
1920 - The Communist Party of Australia is founded in Sydney.
1921 - The Argentina national football team wins the Campeonato Sudamericana for the first time. The competition later becomes the Copa America.
1922 - Victor Emmanuel III of Italy names Benito Mussolini as Prime Minister.
1925 - John Logie Baird creates the United Kingdom's first television transmitter.
1929 - The Stuttgart cable car is built in Stuttgart, Germany.
1938 – Orson Welles broadcasts his radio play of H. G. Wells's , causing a nationwide panic. The War of the Worlds
1941 – World War II: Franklin Delano Roosevelt approves US$1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Soviet Union.
1944 – Anne Frank is deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
1945 - Baseball player Jackie Robinson of the Kansas City Monarchs signs a contract with the Brooklyn Dodgers, leading to the breaking of the color barrier in the sport.
1953 - George Marshall wins the Nobel Peace Prize.
1960 - Michael Woodruff performs his first successful kidney transplant in the United Kingdom at Edinburgh Royal Infirmary.
1961 – The Soviet Union detonates the hydrogen bomb Tsar Bomba. It is the largest nuclear device ever detonated. Nikita Khrushchev says that the scientists had planned to make it larger, but had reduced the yield to prevent breaking all the windows in Moscow.
1961 – Due to "violations of Lenin's precepts", it is decreed that Joseph Stalin's body be removed from its place of honour inside Lenin's tomb and buried near the Kremlin wall with a plain granite marker instead.
1965 – Vietnam War: Just miles from Da Nang, United States Marines stop an large attack of NLF forces, killing 56 guerrillas. Among the dead, a sketch of Marine positions was found on the body of a 13-year-old Vietnamese boy who sold drinks to the Marines the day before.
1970 – In Vietnam, the worst monsoon to hit the area in six years causes large floods, kills 293, leaves 200,000 homeless and virtually halts the Vietnam War.
1972 - Two commuter trains collide in Chicago, Illinois, kills 45 people.
1973 - The Bosphorus Bridge in Istanbul is completed.
1974 – " The Rumble in the Jungle": Muhammad Ali knocks out George Foreman in Kinshasa, Zaire to regain the World Heavyweight Boxing championship.
1975 – Prince Juan Carlos becomes Spain's acting head of state, taking over for the country's ailing dictator, Gen. Francisco Franco.
1980 – El Salvador and Honduras sign a peace treaty to put the border dispute fought over in 1969's Football War before the International Court of Justice.
1983 – The first democratic elections in Argentina after seven years of military rule are held.
1983 – An earthquake in eastern Turkey, near Erzurum, kills around 1,300 people.
1985 - The Space Shuttle Challenger lifts off on what would become its final successful mission.
1988 - Ayrton Senna wins his first Formula One title.
1991 – The Madrid Conference for Middle East peace talks opens.
1995 – Quebec independence referendum: Voters in Quebec narrowly choose to stay part of Canada.
1997 - Mary McAleese is elected President of Ireland.
1998 - 5,500 people are killed by Hurricane Mitch in Honduras.
2000 – The Somoni replaces the Rouble as the currency of Tajikistan.
39 BC - Julia the Elder, daughter of Augustus Caesar (d. 14)
1218 – Emperor Chukyo of Japan (d. 1234)
1513 - Jacques Amyot, French writer (d. 1593)
1580 – Dirk Hartog, Dutch explorer (d. 1621)
1624 - Paul Pellisson, French writer (d. 1693)
1632 – Christopher Wren, English architect (d. 1723)
1668 – Sophia Charlotte of Hanover, Queen of Prussia (d. 1705)
1735 – John Adams, 1st Vice President and 2nd President of the United States (d. 1826)
1741 – Angelica Kauffman, Swiss- Austrian painter (d. 1807)
1748 - Martha Jefferson, first wife of Thomas Jefferson (d. 1782)
1763 - Heinrich Cotta, German forester (d. 1844)
1776 - George M. Bibb, American politician (d. 1859)
1778 - Benjamin Ames, Governor of Maine (d. 1835)
1785 - Heinrich von Pückler-Muskau, Prussian lieutenant (d. 1871)
1789 - Princess Louise Charlotte of Denmark (d. 1864)
1804 - Charles II, Duke of Brunswick (d. 1873)
1816 - Henry L. Dawes, American politician (d. 1903)
1829 - Suzanne Manet, wife and model of the painter Edouard Manet (d. 1906)
1836 - Camillo Boito, Italian writer and architect (d. 1914)
1839 – Alfred Sisley, Anglo- French painter (d. 1899)
1844 - Harvey W. Wiley, American chemist (d. 1930)
1847 - Galileo Ferraris, Italian physicist (d. 1897)
1853 - Louise Abbéma, French painter (d. 1927)
1857 – Georges Gilles de la Tourette, French neurologist (d. 1904)
1859 - Karl von Stürgkh, Austrian politician (d. 1916)
1861 - Antoine Bourdelle, French sculptor (d. 1929)
1871 - Paul Valéry, French poet (d. 1945)
1871 - Buck Freeman, American baseball player (d. 1949)
1873 – Francisco I. Madero, President of Mexico (d. 1913)
1877 - Hugo Celmins, Prime Minister of Latvia (d. 1941)
1881 - Elizabeth Roberts, American poet and writer (d. 1941)
1882 - Oldrich Duras, Czech chess player (d. 1957)
1882 - William F. Halsey, Jr., American naval commander (d. 1959)
1885 – Ezra Pound, American poet (d. 1972)
1886 - Zoe Akins, American playwright (d. 1958)
1887 - Sukumar Ray, Bengali writer (d. 1923)
1887 - Georg Heym, German writer (d. 1912)
1888 - Louis Menges, American soccer player (d. 1969)
1888 - Konstantinos Tsiklitiras, Greek Olympic champion (d. 1913)
1893 - Charles Atlas, Italian bodybuilder (d. 1972)
1893 - Roland Freisler, German Nazi judge (d. 1945)
1894 - Jean Rostand, French biologist (d. 1977)
1895 – Gerhard Domagk, German doctor, won the 1939 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1964)
1895 – Dickinson W. Richards, American physician (d. 1973)
1896 – Harry Randall Truman, Guardian of Mt. St. Helens (d. 1980)
1896 - Ruth Gordon, American actress (d. 1985)
1896 - Kostas Karyotakis, Greek poet (d. 1928)
1897 - Agustin Lara, Mexican composer (d. 1970)
1900 – Ragnar Granit, Finnish neuro scientist (d. 1991)
1905 - Johnny Miles, Canadian marathon runner (d. 2003)
1906 – Giuseppe Farina, Italian racing driver (d. 1966)
1906 – Alexander Gode, German- American linguist (d. 1970)
1908 - U. Muthuramalingam Thevar, Indian politician (d. 1963)
1908 - Patsy Montana, American country music singer-songwriter (d. 1996)
1909 - Homi J. Bhabha, Indian physicist (d. 1966)
1910 - Luciano Sgrizzi, Italian harpsichordist and composer (d. 1994)
1911 – Ruth Hussey, American actress (d. 2005)
1914 - Anna Wing, British actress (d. 2013)
1914 - Leabua Jonathan, 2nd Prime Minister of Lesotho (d. 1987)
1915 - Jane Randolph, American actress (d. 2009)
1915 - Fred Friendly, American journalist (d. 1998)
1917 - Maurice Trintignant, French racing driver (d. 2005)
1926 - Tommy Ridgley, American singer
1928 – Daniel Nathans, American microbiologist (d. 1999)
1930 – Clifford Brown, American musician (d. 1956)
1931 - Vince Callahan, American politician (d. 2014)
1932 - Louis Malle, French movie director (d. 1995)
1934 - Frans Brüggen, Dutch conductor and flautist (d. 2014)
1935 – Agota Kristof, Hungarian writer (d. 2011)
1935 – Michael Winner, English movie director (d. 2013)
1937 – Claude Lelouch, French director
1938 - Ed Lauter, American actor (d. 2013)
1939 – Leland H. Hartwell, American scientist
1939 - Eddie Holland, American songwriter
1939 - Grace Slick, American rock music singer
1941 - Theodor W. Haensch, German physicist
1941 - Otis Williams, American singer
1943 - David Triesman, Baron Triesman, English politician
1944 - Ahmed Chalabi, Iraqi politician (d. 2015)
1945 – Henry Winkler, American actor, director and producer
1946 - William Thurston, American mathematician (d. 2012)
1946 - Robert L. Gibson, American astronaut
1946 - Chris L. Slade, Welsh drummer
1947 - Timothy B. Schmit, American rock musician
1951 - Harry Hamlin, American actor
1952 - Ana Paula Ribeiro Tavares, Angolan historian and poet
1953 - Pete Hoekstra, United States Congressman
1954 – Mario Testino, Peruvian-born fashion photographer
1954 - Mahmoud El Khatib, Egyptian footballer
1955 - Heidi Heitkamp, American politician
1956 - Juliet Stevenson, English actress
1957 - Kevin Pollak, American actor and director
1960 – Diego Armando Maradona, Argentine footballer
1961 - Giorgos Papakonstantinou, Greek economist and politician
1962 - Courtney Walsh, Jamaican cricketer
1962 – Stefan Kuntz, German footballer
1964 – Jean-Marc Bosman, Belgian footballer
1965 - Gavin Rossdale, British musician
1966 - Scott Innes, American voice actor
1966 - Zoran Milanovic, 10th Prime Minister of Croatia
1967 - Brad Aitken, Canadian ice hockey player
1969 - Stanislav Gross, 5th Prime Minister of the Czech Republic (d. 2015)
1969 - Snow, Canadian musician
1970 - Xie Jun, Chinese chess player
1970 - Nia Long, American actress
1970 - Ben Bailey, American comedian and talk show host
1970 - Tony Belleci, American visual effects designer and TV host
1971 – Fredi Bobic, German footballer
1971 - Tzanis Stavrakopoulos, Greek basketball player
1972 - Jessica Hynes, British actress and writer
1975 - Maria Thayer, American actress
1976 – Stern John, Trinidadian footballer
1978 – Matthew Morrison, American actor and singer
1981 - Jun Ji-hyun, South Korean actress
1981 - Ayaka Kimura, Japanese actress
1981 - Ivanka Trump, American model
1982 - Manny Parra, American baseball player
1984 - Tyson Strachan, Canadian ice hockey player
1984 - Eva Marcille, American actress, TV host and model
1986 – Thomas Morgenstern, Austrian skijumper
1986 - Margareta Kozuch, German volleyball player
1988 - Janel Parrish, American actress and singer
1989 - Jay Asforis, British actor, singer and dancer ( S Club 7)
1989 - Vanessa White, British singer ( The Saturdays)
1989 – Seth Adkins, American actor
1989 – Nastia Liukin, American gymnast
1989 - Ashley Barnes, Austrian-English footballer
1996 – Mizuki Fukumura, Japanese singer ( Morning Musume)
1998 - Meimi Tamura, Japanese singer
1226 - Ly Hue Tong, Emperor of Vietnam
1459 - Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini, Italian humanist (b. 1380)
1522 - Jean Houton, French composer (b. 1459)
1553 - Jacob Sturm von Sturmeck, German statesman and reformer (b. 1489)
1602 - Jean-Jacques Boissard, French poet (b. 1528)
1611 – King Charles IX of Sweden (b. 1550)
1626 - Willebrord Snell, Dutch astronomer and mathematician (b. 1580)
1632 - Henri II de Montmorency, French naval officer (b. 1595)
1654 – Emperor Go-Komyo of Japan (b. 1633)
1685 - Michel le Tellier, French statesman (b. 1603)
1757 - Osman III, Ottoman Sultan
1802 - Charles Alexandre de Colonna, French statesman (b. 1734)
1809 – William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1738)
1816 - Frederick I of Württemberg (b. 1754)
1842 - Allan Cunningham, Scottish author and poet (b. 1784)
1853 - Pietro Raimondi, Italian composer (b. 1786)
1883 - Robert Volkmann, German composer (b. 1815)
1893 – John Abbott, 3rd Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1821)
1894 - Honoré Mercier, 9th Premier of Quebec (b. 1840)
1910 – Jean-Henri Dunant, Swiss founder of the International Red Cross, co-winner of the first Nobel Peace Prize (b. 1828)
1912 – James S. Sherman, Vice President of the United States (b. 1855)
1915 – Charles Tupper, shortest-serving Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1821)
1923 – Andrew Bonar Law, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1858)
1951 - Tom Perry, 14th Governor of South Dakota (b. 1879)
1956 – Pio Baroja, Spanish writer (b. 1872)
1957 - Fred Beebe, American baseball player (b. 1880)
1961 – Luigi Einaudi, 2nd President of Italy (b. 1874)
1963 - U. Muthuramalingam Thevar, Indian politician (b. 1908)
1965 - Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr., American historian (b. 1888)
1968 - Ramon Novarro, Mexican actor, singer and director (b. 1899)
1968 - Conrad Richter, American author and playwright (b. 1890)
1968 - Rose Wilder Lane, American journalist and writer (b. 1886)
1975 – Gustav Ludwig Hertz, German physicist (b. 1887)
1979 - Barnes Wallis, English scientist and engineer (b. 1887)
1979 - Rachele Mussolini, wife of Benito Mussolini (b. 1890)
1985 - Kirby Grant, American actor (b. 1911)
1993 - Paul Grégoire, Archbishop of Montreal (b. 1911)
1997 – Samuel Fuller, American movie director (b. 1912)
2000 – Steve Allen, American comedian, writer, and composer (b. 1921)
2002 – Juan Antonio Bardem, Spanish director and screenwriter (b. 1922)
2004 - Peggy Ryan, American actress (b. 1924)
2005 - Shamsher Singh Sheri, Indian Communist leader (b. 1942)
2006 - Junji Kinoshita, Japanese playwright (b. 1914)
2007 – Robert Goulet, American entertainer (b. 1933)
2009 - Juvenal Amarijo, Brazilian footballer (b. 1923)
2009 – Claude Lévi-Strauss, French anthropologist (b. 1908)
2010 – Harry Mulisch, Dutch writer (b. 1927)
2013 - Ralph Tarrant, English supercentenarian (b. 1903)
2014 - Thomas Menino, American politician, longest-serving Mayor of Boston, Massachusetts (b. 1942)
2014 - Bob Geigel, American wrestling promoter (b. 1924)
2015 - Mel Daniels, American basketball player (b. 1944)
2015 - Al Molinaro, American actor (b. 1919)