Oneida people

From Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Total population
Regions with significant populations
 United States (Wisconsin, New York)10,309 and 1,109[1]
 Canada (Ontario)3,970[1]
Oneida, English, other Iroquoian Languages
Kai'hwi'io, Kanoh'hon'io, Kahni'kwi'io, Christianity, Longhouse (Handsome Lake), Other Indigenous Religion
Related ethnic groups
Seneca Nation, Onondaga Nation, Tuscarora Nation, Mohawk Nation, Cayuga Nation, other Iroquoian peoples

The Oneida people (autonym: Onʌyoteˀa·ká·, Onyota'a:ka) are a Native American and First Nation tribe. They were part of the Iroquois Confederacy. Their name means "People of the Standing Stone".[2] The Oneida, Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca were the first tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy. The Oneida lived in upstate New York and around the Great Lakes. There are four tribes today. The US government recognizes the Oneida Indian Nation in New York and the Oneida Nation in Green Bay, Wisconsin. Canada recognizes the Six Nations of the Grand River and Oneida Nation of the Thames in Ontario, Canada.

History[change | change source]

The Oneida had large amounts of land before colonists came. The Oneida and the Iroquois Confederacy had to give up lands in several treaties with the United States. These treaties created new boundaries for Native lands. The Iroquois signed Treaties of Fort Stanwix in 1764 and 1784. In these treaties, the Iroquois had to give up lands in Pennsylvania, Kentucky, West Virginia, and New York.[3][4][5]

The Oneida people are known for supporting the Americans in the American Revolution. Oneida were first neutral during the American Revolution. Most eventually supported the Americans. The Mohawks supported the British and attacked the Oneida. Polly Cooper helped American troops at Valley Forge. Chief Skenandon and his people brought food to the troops in 1777.[6]

After the war, the Iroquois got back lands in the Treaty of Canandaigua (1794). This treaty created peace and friendship between the United States and the Iroquois.[7][8] However, the Americans took back these lands. They had contact with Quakers in New York. The Oneida broke up into groups. There were disagreements with Quakers about lands and missions.[9]

In the early 19th century, the Oneida did not have land and moved to Wisconsin. Chief Daniel Bread helped with the Treaty in Wisconsin (1838).[10]

Culture[change | change source]

The main food was corn (agriculture). The tribe farmed the Three Sisters (corn, beans, squash). There were different foods for different seasons. Fall foods included dried fruits, nuts, wild rice. They ate more fatty foods before the winter. Meats included deer, geese, duck and raccoon. In the spring Oneida ate wild onions, leeks, milkweeds, dandelions and maple candy. They also did fishing in the spring. The summer foods included fruits like strawberries, blackberries, raspberries, blueberries, pears, plums, peaches, apples, and grapes.[11]

The tribe lived in longhouses. There were about 60 to 100 longhouses in the Oneida Nation. There were individual clans. The three clans of the Oneida Nation are turtle, wolf, and bear.[12]

The Oneida nation had a tribal council. Mothers played an important role in decisions. The Oneida were matrilineal. This means descent and family was through the mother. Men did hunting and fishing. Women prepared food, cooked and cleaned.[13]

Clothing had meaning in the Oneida culture. Clothing included clan symbols. Oneida wore animal skins. When European settlers came, they wore more cotton and cloths clothing. Women wore headbands with many beads. Men wore a kastoweh or feathered hat.[14]

The tribe had social and ceremonial dancing. Social dancing was public. Examples included round dance, rabbit dance, old moccasin dance and canoe or fishing dance. Ceremonial dancing was sacred and more private. Ceremonial dances included Maple Syrup, Strawberry, Bean, Sun and Moon dances. Ceremonial dancing included singing.[15]

Related pages[change | change source]

References[change | change source]

  1. 1.0 1.1 fr:Goyogouins
  2. Rudes, B. Tuscarora English Dictionary Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999
  3. "Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1784) - Ohio History Central". Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  4. "Treaties of Fort Stanwix (1768 and 1784) | The Canadian Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  5. "Treaties of Fort Stanwix | North America [1768 and 1784] | Britannica". Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  6. "The Oneida Nation in the American Revolution (U.S. National Park Service)". Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  7. "Treaty of Canandaigua, 1794 | Nation to Nation". Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  8. Kappler, Charles J. "The Avalon Project : Treaty With the Six Nations, 1794". Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  9. Tiro, Karim M. “‘We Wish to Do You Good’: The Quaker Mission to the Oneida Nation, 1790-1840.” Journal of the Early Republic26, no. 3 (2006): 353–76.
  10. "Oneida Treaties and Treaty Rights | Milwaukee Public Museum". Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  11. eighty6. "Eating the Seasons – Oneida Indian Nation". Retrieved 2022-08-13.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  12. "Oneida | History, Culture, & Language | Britannica". Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  13. "Oneida". Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  14. "Clothing | Oneida". Retrieved 2022-08-13.
  15. "Social Dance | Oneida Indian Nation | Culture". 2015-05-23. Archived from the original on 2015-05-23. Retrieved 2022-08-13.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)