Orthodox Presbyterian Church of Korea
|Orthodox Presbyterian Church of Korea|
|Moderator||Ha Seung Moo|
|Associations||International Union of Reformed Churches|
|Founder||Ha Seung Moo|
|Origin||January 17, 2012 |
The Orthodox Presbyterian Church of Korea (OPCK, Founder Ha Seung Moo) is a historic Orthodox Reformed Church's doctrine and historical succession of tradition of the John Knox's <Scottish Presbyterian Church> declared the first among Presbyterian denomination in Korea. Launched in January 2012.
Main Doctrine[change | change source]
Most objections to and attacks on Calvinism focus on the "five points of Calvinism," also called the doctrines of grace, and remembered by the mnemonic "TULIP." The five points are popularly said to summarize the Canons of Dort; however, there is no historical relationship between them, and some scholars argue that their language distorts the meaning of the Canons, Calvin's theology, and the theology of 17th-century Calvinistic orthodoxy, particularly in the language of total depravity and limited atonement. The five points were popularized in the 1963 booklet The Five Points of Calvinism Defined, Defended, Documented by David N. Steele and Curtis C. Thomas. The origins of the five points and the acronym are uncertain, but the acronym was used by Cleland Boyd McAfee as early as circa 1905. An early printed appearance of the T-U-L-I-P acronym is in Loraine Boettner's 1932 book, The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination. The acronym was very cautiously if ever used by Calvinist apologists and theologians before the booklet by Steele and Thomas. More recently, theologians have sought to reformulate the TULIP acronym to more accurately reflect the Canons of Dort.
The central assertion of these points is that God saves every person upon whom he has mercy, and that his efforts are not frustrated by the unrighteousness or inability of humans.
- "Total depravity" This doctrine is derived from Augustine's explanation of Original Sin. While the phrases "totally depraved" and "utterly perverse" were used by Calvin, what was meant was the inability to save oneself from sin rather than being absent of goodness. Phrases like "total depravity" cannot be found in the Canons of Dort, and the Canons as well as later Reformed orthodox theologians arguably offer a more moderate view of the nature of fallen humanity than Calvin.
- "Unconditional election"
- "Limited atonement," "
- "Irresistible grace"
- "Perseverance of the saints"
Historical and Practical Doctrine[change | change source]
The OPCK system of doctrine is the Reformed faith, also called Calvinism. Since the establishment of the Presbyterian Church and Calvin's doctrines continued to develop after his death, and a particular evolution of them was set forth by a 17th-century assembly of British theologians in the Westminster Standards (which include the Westminster Confession of Faith and the Westminster Larger Catechism|Larger and Westminster Shorter Catechism|Shorter Catechisms). The OPC holds to the Westminster Standards with the American revisions of 1788.
The OPCK system of doctrine is the Reformed faith, also called Calvinism. Calvin's doctrines continued to develop after his death, and a particular evolution of them was set forth by a 17th-century assembly of British theologians in the Westminster Standards (which include the Westminster Confession of Faith and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms). The OPC holds to the Westminster Standards with the American revisions of 1788.
- The Bible, having been inspired by God, is entirely trustworthy and without error. Therefore, we are to believe and obey its teachings. The Bible is the only source of special revelation for the church today.
- The one true God is personal, yet beyond our comprehension. He is an invisible spirit, completely self-sufficient and unbounded by space or time, perfectly holy and just, and loving and merciful. In the unity of the Godhead there are three "persons": the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
- God created the heavens and the earth, and all they contain. He upholds and governs them in accordance with his eternal will. God is sovereign—in complete control—yet this does not diminish human responsibility.
- Because of the sin of the first man, Adam, all mankind is corrupt by nature, dead in sin, and subject to the wrath of God. But God determined, by a covenant of grace, that sinners may receive forgiveness and eternal life through faith in Jesus Christ. Faith in Christ has always been the only way of salvation, in both Old Testament and New Testament times.
- The Son of God took upon himself a human nature in the womb of the virgin Mary, so that in her son Jesus the divine and human natures were united in one person. Jesus Christ lived a sinless life and died on a cross, bearing the sins of, and receiving God's wrath for, all those who trust in him for salvation (his chosen ones). He rose from the dead and ascended into heaven, where he sits as Lord and rules over his kingdom (the church). He will return to judge the living and the dead, bringing his people (with glorious, resurrected bodies) into eternal life, and consigning the wicked to eternal punishment.
- Those whom God has predestined unto life are effectually drawn to Christ by the inner working of the Spirit as they hear the gospel. When they believe in Christ, God declares them righteous (justifies them), pardoning their sins and accepting them as righteous, not because of any righteousness of their own, but by imputing Christ's merits to them. They are adopted as the children of God and indwelt by the Holy Spirit, who sanctifies them, enabling them increasingly to stop sinning and act righteously. They repent of their sins (both at their conversion and thereafter), produce good works as the fruit of their faith, and persevere to the end in communion with Christ, with assurance of their salvation.
- Believers strive to keep God's moral law, which is summarized in the Ten Commandments, not to earn salvation, but because they love their Savior and want to obey him. God is the Lord of the conscience, so that men are not required to believe or do anything contrary to, or in addition to, the Word of God in matters of faith or worship.
- Christ has established his church, and particular churches, to gather and perfect his people, by means of the ministry of the Word, the sacraments of baptism (which is to be administered to the children of believers, as well as believers) and the Lord's Supper (in which the body and blood of Christ are spiritually present to the faith of believers), and the disciplining of members found delinquent in doctrine or life. Christians assemble on the Lord's Day to worship God by praying, hearing the Word of God read and preached, singing psalms and hymns, and receiving the sacraments.
References[change | change source]
- OPCK YouTube video
- Horton 2011b, p. 15.
- Sproul, R C (1997), What is Reformed Theology?, Grand Rapids: Baker Books, pp. 27_28
- Muller, Richard A. (2012). Calvin and the Reformed Tradition (Ebook ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. pp. 50_51.
- Stewart, Kenneth J. (2008). "The Points of Calvinism: Retrospect and Prospect" (PDF). Scottish Journal of Evangelical Theology. 26 (2): 189.
- Wail, William H., (1913). The Five Points of Calvinism Historically Considered, The New Outlook 104 (1913).CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link) CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Boettner, Loraine. "The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination" (PDF). Bloomingtonrpchurch.org. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
- Stewart, Kenneth J. (2008). "The Points of Calvinism: Retrospect and Prospect" (PDF). Scottish Journal of Evangelical Theology. 26 (2): 189_193.
- See Daniel Montgomery and Timothy Paul Jones, PROOF: Finding Freedom Through the Intoxicating Joy of Irresistible Grace. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2014. The authors of PROOF offer a reformulated acronym to communicate the positive achievements of Dort and the reformed doctrines of grace. PROOF stands for P: Planned Grace, R: Resurrecting Grace, O: Outrageous Grace, O: Overcoming Grace, F: Forever Grace.
- Steele, David; Thomas, Curtis (1963). The Five Points of Calvinism Defined, Defended, Documented. p. 25.
The adjective 'total' does not mean that each sinner is as totally or completely corrupt in his actions and thoughts as it is possible for him to be. Instead, the word 'total' is used to indicate that the "whole" of man's being has been affected by sin
- Elizabeth A. Livingstone (2005). "Original sin". The Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church (3rd rev. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192802903.
- Muller, Richard A. (2012). "Was Calvin a Calvinist?". Calvin and the Reformed Tradition (Ebook ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. p. 51. ISBN 978-1-4412-4254-9.
- WCF 1646.
- "The Five Points of Calvinism, TULIP". Calvinistcorner.com. Retrieved 2013-12-05.
- See John Gill's commentary on 1 Timothy 4:10.
- Muller, Richard A. (2012). Calvin and the Reformed Tradition (Ebook ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. pp. 51_52. ISBN 978-1-4412-4254-9.
- Loraine Boettner. "The Perseverance of the Saints". The Reformed Doctrine of Predestination. Retrieved 2009-03-25.
- "What is the OPC?: Part II.1. Our Constitution; II.2. Our System of Doctrine". The Orthodox Presbyterian Church. Retrieved 8 January 2013.