Pedophilia (paedophilia in British English) is when a person sixteen years of age or older is primarily or exclusively sexually attracted to children who have not begun puberty (generally eleven years old or less).
Terminology[change | change source]
A person with pedophilia is called a pedophile. The child must be at least five years younger than the person in the case of adolescent pedophiles before the attraction can be called pedophilia. Adults whose primary sexual attraction is for early adolescents are properly called hebephiles, not pedophiles. Adults whose primary sexual attraction is for mid-to-late teens are properly called ephebophiles, but ephebophilia is not considered abnormal by mental health professionals. The opposite of pedophilia is teleiophilia (attraction to adults).
Condition[change | change source]
Medically, this condition is classified by the American Psychiatric Association as a mental disorder. Some pedophiles have sex with children or use children in a sexual way. This is called "child sexual abuse" because by law, children are unable to truly agree to sexual acts with an adult. Some adults have pedophilic feelings but do not act by sexually abusing children. Some adults who are not pedophiles commit sexual abuse against children.
Not all pedophiles feel or act in the same way. Since the 1880s, psychologists have studied and shown that different pedophiles might act in different ways:
- Some pedophiles are only sexually attracted to prepubescent children. They are called exclusive pedophiles.
- Some pedophiles have a sexual preference for prepubescent children but are sexually attracted to adults as well. They are called preferential pedophiles.
- Some adults who prefer adult sexual partners are also sexually attracted to prepubescent children.
Studies[change | change source]
General[change | change source]
For pedophiles who commit child sexual abuse, some studies have shown that pedophiles who are only attracted to children may abuse more children than pedophiles who also have adult sexual partners.
The people who abuse children are often known to them—such as parents, other relatives, and friends—and are not strangers. One research study found that half the adults convicted of child sexual abuse of children outside of their family were also sexually abusing their own children.
Is it common?[change | change source]
Medical researchers do not know how many people in the population are pedophiles. This is because it is hard to study people's feelings and desires unless they actually show that they have those feelings. Generally, the only pedophiles who can be studied are those who have both broken the law and been caught and convicted of child sexual abuse. A second reason is that when an adult or teenager sexually abuses a child, people often call the abuser a "pedophile", but it is possible that the abuse happened for a different reason, such as the unavailability of an adult partner. Experts generally define a person as a pedophile only if they are primarily or exclusively sexually attracted to prepubescent children. If a person sexually abuses a prepubescent child to frighten or punish them, for example, then it may not be true pedophile behavior.
Some sources, such as the Mayo Clinic, report that most child sexual abuse of prepubescent children is committed by pedophiles, while other studies report that most people who sexually abuse children are not pedophiles. According to some studies, about 1% of all adult males may be pedophiles. However, other studies indicate that the percentage of pedophiles in the adult male population may vary between 12% to 22% percent.
Treatment[change | change source]
As of 2008, most doctors believe that pedophilia cannot be cured. The current approach to deal with pedophiles who have been convicted of sexual abuse is to try to change their behavior. It does not change their sexual attraction. Using this treatment, it is believed that some sex offenders can be prevented from offending again. Medications such as Depo-Provera can be used to treat pedophilia.
References[change | change source]
- "DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA FOR PEDOPHILIA" (PDF). APA STATEMENT. American Psychiatric Association. June 17, 2003. https://web.archive.org/web/20070629090023/http://www.psych.org/news_room/press_releases/diagnosticcriteriapedophilia.pdf.
- Seto MC.(2009) Pedophilia. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 5:391-407.
- Edwards, M. (1997) "Treatment for Paedophiles; Treatment for Sex Offenders." Paedophile Policy and Prevention, Australian Institute of Criminology Research and Public Policy Series (12), 74-75.
- Blaney, Paul H.; Millon, Theodore (2009). Oxford Textbook of Psychopathology (Oxford Series in Clinical Psychology) (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press, USA. pp. 528. ISBN 0-19-537421-5. "Some cases of child molestation, especially those involving incest, are committed in the absence of any identifiable deviant erotic age preference."
- Studer Lea H., Aylwin A. Scott (2006). "Pedophilia: The problem with diagnosis and limitations of CBT in treatment". Medical Hypotheses 67 (4): 774–781. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2006.04.030. PMID 16766133.
- World Health Organization, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems: ICD-10 Section F65.4: Paedophilia (online access via ICD-10 site map table of contents)
- Krafft-Ebing, R. von. (1886). Psychopathia sexualis: A medico-forensic study (1965 trans by H. E. Wedeck). New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons. ISBN 1-55970-425-X.
- Abel, G. G., Mittleman, M. S., & Becker, J. V. (1985). "Sex offenders: Results of assessment and recommendations for treatment." In M. H. Ben-Aron, S. J. Hucker, & C. D. Webster (Eds.), Clinical criminology: The assessment and treatment of criminal behavior (pp. 207-220). Toronto, Canada: M & M Graphics.
- Linda S. Grossman, Ph.D., Brian Martis, M.D. and Christopher G. Fichtner, M.D. (1999). Are Sex Offenders Treatable? A Research Overview. 50. pp. 349–361work=Psychiatr Serv. PMID 10096639. http://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/50/3/349.
- Lanning, Kenneth (2001). "Child Molesters: A Behavioral Analysis (Third Edition)" (PDF). National Center for Missing & Exploited Children. pp. p25, 27, 29. http://www.missingkids.com/en_US/publications/NC70.pdf.
- M. GLASSER, FRCPsych and I. KOLVIN, FRCPsych (2001). "Cycle of child sexual abuse: links between being a victim and becoming a perpetrator". British Journal of Psychiatry. http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/bjprcpsych;179/6/482.
- Seto, M. C. (2004). "Pedophilia and Sexual Offenses Against Children," Annual Review of Sex Research, 15, 329-369.
- Hall M.D; Ryan C.W. & Hall R.C.W.. "A profile of pedophilia: definition, characteristics of offenders, recidivism, treatment outcomes, and forensic issues" (PDF). MAYO CLIN PROC (MAYO Foundation) 82:457-471 2007. http://www.mayoclinicproceedings.com/pdf%2F8204%2F8204sa.pdf.
- H. Zonana, G. Abel (1999): Dangerous sex offenders. A task force report of the American Psychiatric Association – Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association
- Briere J. & Runtz M. 1989. University males’ sexual interest in children: predicting potential indices of "pedophilia" in a non-forensic sample. Child Abuse & Neglect: The International Journal, 13, 65–75
- "Philip Tromovitch Ph.D - Doshisha University (Kyoto - Japan) - poster presented in the conference: Classifying Sex: Debating DSM-5, held at University of Cambridge". https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/44284820/Prevalence%20-%20Trom%202.JPG.
- "Every fifth boy and man is pedophilic or hebephilic". https://www.ipce.info/sites/ipce.info/files/biblio_attachments/every_fifth.pdf. Meta-analysis compiled by Filip Schuster
- "Treatments to Change Sexual Orientation - BERLIN 157 (5): 838 - Am J Psychiatry". http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/157/5/838.
- Public Policy