Pentane

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Pentane
Pentane 3D ball.png
Pentane 3D spacefill.png
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
Pentane
Other names
Quintane[1]
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
Beilstein Reference 969132
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
DrugBank
ECHA InfoCard 100.003.358
EC Number 203-692-4
Gmelin Reference 1766
MeSH {{{value}}}
PubChem {{{value}}}
RTECS number RZ9450000
UNII
UN number 1265
SMILES {{{value}}}
Properties[3]
C5H12
Molar mass 72.15 g·mol−1
Appearance Colourless liquid
Odor Gasoline-like[2]
Density 0.626 g mL−1; 0.6262 g mL−1 (at 20 °C)
Melting point −130.5 to −129.1 °C; −202.8 to −200.3 °F; 142.7 to 144.1 K
Boiling point 35.9 to 36.3 °C; 96.5 to 97.3 °F; 309.0 to 309.4 K
40 mg L−1 (at 20 °C)
log P 3.255
Vapor pressure 57.90 kPa (at 20.0 °C)
kH 7.8 nmol Pa−1 kg−1
Acidity (pKa) ~45
Basicity (pKb) ~59
λmax 200 nm
-63.05·10−6 cm3/mol
1.358
Viscosity 0.240 mPa·s (at 20 °C)
Thermochemistry
Std enthalpy of
formation
ΔfHo298
−174.1–−172.9 kJ mol−1
Std enthalpy of
combustion
ΔcHo298
−3.5095–−3.5085 MJ mol−1
Standard molar
entropy
So298
263.47 J K−1 mol−1
Specific heat capacity, C 167.19 J K−1 mol−1
Hazards
NFPA 704

NFPA 704.svg

4
1
0
 
Explosive limits 1.5–7.8%[2]
U.S. Permissible
exposure limit (PEL)
TWA 1000 ppm (2950 mg/m3)[2]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Pentane is an organic compound with the chemical formula of C
5
H
12
. It is an alkane with five carbon atoms. Usually, "pentane" represents all three isomers (n-pentane, isopentane and neopentane). But in the IUPAC, pentane only represents n-pentane. In the IUPAC, the other two isomers is 2-methylbutane and 2,2-dimethylpropane. Cyclopentane's chemical formula is C
5
H
10
, so it is not an isomer of pentane.

Isomers[change | change source]

Common name normal pentane
unbranched pentane
n-pentane
isopentane neopentane
IUPAC name pentane 2-methylbutane 2,2-dimethylpropane
Molecular
diagram
N-Pentan.png Isopentane.PNG Neopentane.PNG
Skeletal
diagram
Pentane-2D-Skeletal.svg Isopentane-2D-skeletal.png Neopentane-2D-skeletal.png

Reaction[change | change source]

All isomers of pentane burn with oxygen to make carbon dioxide and water:

C
5
H
12
+8O
2
->5CO
2
+6H
2
O
.

References[change | change source]

  1. Hofmann, August Wilhelm Von (1 January 1867). "I. On the action of trichloride of phosphorus on the salts of the aromatic monamines". Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 15: 54–62. doi:10.1098/rspl.1866.0018. http://rspl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/15/54. Retrieved 4 April 2018. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards #0486". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  3. Record of n-Pentane in the GESTIS Substance Database of the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, accessed on 19 April 2011.