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Peranakan refers to mixed Chinese and Malay/Indonesian people. Many Peranakans trace their origins to 15th-century Malacca.

Many Peranakan in Java, Indonesia are descendants of non-Muslim Chinese men who married abangan Javanese Muslim women. Most of the Chinese men did not convert to Islam since their Javanese wives did not ask them to, but a minority of Javanese women asked them to convert so a Chinese Muslim community made out of converts appeared among the Javanese. In the late half of the 19th century, Javanese Muslims became more adherent to Islamic rules due to going on hajj and more Arabs arriving in Java, ordering circumcision for converts. The Batavian Muslims in the 19th century completely absorbed the converted Chinese Muslims who originally had their own separate kapitan and community in the late 18th century. The remaining commoner non-Muslim Chinese Peranakans descended from Chinese men and Javanese Muslim women generally stopped marrying Javanese and the elite Peranakans stopped marrying Javanese completely and instead started only marrying fellow Chinese Peranakans in the 19th century, as they realized they might get absorbed by the Muslims.[1][2] DNA tests done on Chinese Peranakan in Singapore showed that those Peranakan who are mixed with Malays are mostly of paternal Han Chinese descent and of maternal Malay descent.[3][4][5][6] [7]

Among the Straits Chinese (Peranakan) descendants in Sulu, the Philippines is Abdusakur Tan II, the governor.[8][9]

References[change | change source]

  1. Skinner, G. William (2001). "3 Creolized Chinese Societies in Southeast Asia". In Reid, Anthony (ed.). Sojourners and Settlers: Histories of Southeast Asia and the Chinese. Diaspora studies / Southeast Asian History (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 75. ISBN 0824824466.
  2. Wijaya, Yahya (2002). Business, Family, and Religion: Public Theology in the Context of the Chinese-Indonesian Business Community. P. Lang. p. 71. ISBN 390676849X.
  3. Wu, Degang; Li, Peter Yiqing; Pan, Bangfen; Tiang, Zenia; Dou, Jinzhuang; Williantarra, Ivanna; Pribowo, Amadeus Yeremia; Nurdiansyah, Rizky; Foo, Roger S Y; Wang, Chaolong (October 2021). "Genetic Admixture in the Culturally Unique Peranakan Chinese Population in Southeast Asia". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 38 (10): 4463–4474. doi:10.1093/molbev/msab187. PMC 8476152. PMID 34152401.
  5. "Genomic analysis of Peranakan Chinese reveals insight into ancestry". Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore. August 6, 2021.
  6. Chee, Colin (30 June 2021). "THE SINGAPORE PERANAKAN GENOME PROJECT". The Peranakan Association Singapore.
  8. Antolihao, Lou; Mesenas, Clement (2017). "Chapter 13 Filipino Community and Culture in Singapore". In Mathew, Mathews (ed.). Singapore Ethnic Mosaic, The: Many Cultures, One People. World Scientific. p. 409. ISBN 978-9813234758.
  9. See, T. Ang (2011). "Part 3 South and Southeast Asia 3. Localization of the Chinese in the Philippines". In Suryadinata, Leo (ed.). Migration, Indigenization And Interaction: Chinese Overseas And Globalization. World Scientific. p. 237. ISBN 978-9814458269.