Phineas P. Gage (July 9, 1823 – May 21, 1860) was an American railroad construction foreman. He is known for his unlikely survival of an accident in which a large iron rod was driven completely through his head, destroying much of his brain's left frontal lobe. This caused effects on his personality and behavior over the remaining 12 years of his life.
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- "Phineas Gage: Neuroscience's Most Famous Patient". The Smithsonian. Retrieved July 22, 2020.