All humans plan to some extent: it is a fundamental property of intelligent behaviour. In big organisations and government planning is a main activity. It combines forecasting developments with scenarios of how to react to them.
Forecasting is predicting what the future will look like, whereas planning predicts what the future should look like.
The "nuts and bolts" of planning are the documents, diagrams, and meetings, the objectives and the strategy to be followed. Beyond this, planning has a different meaning depending on the context in which it is used.