A population exchange between Greece and Turkey took place at the suggestion of the Greek government by the Treaty of Lausanne (1923). It took place according to religious criteria. The expulsion affected the Greek Orthodox in Anatolia and Izmir in Turkey and the Muslims in Greece and Crete. The exceptions were Greeks in Istanbul, East Thrace, and the islands of Gökçeada and Bozcaada in Turkey. Muslims living in Western Thrace in Greece and islands like Rhodes were allowed to stay.
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