President of the European Commission

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President of the
European Commission
European Commission.svg
Commission emblem
Flag of Europe.svg
Flag of the EU
Ioannes Claudius Juncker die 7 Martis 2014.jpg
Incumbent
Jean-Claude Juncker

since 1 November 2014
European Commission
Institutions of the European Union
StatusHead of an Institution
Member ofEuropean Commission
European Council (non-voting)
Reports toEuropean Parliament
European Council
ResidenceBerlaymont building
SeatBrussels, Belgium
NominatorEuropean Council
on the basis of the latest European elections
AppointerEuropean Parliament
Term lengthFive years, renewable
Constituting instrumentTreaties of the European Union
Inaugural holderWalter Hallstein
Formation1 January 1958
DeputyFirst Vice-President of the European Commission
Salary306.655 euro annually [1]
Websiteec.europa.eu

The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission. It is the executive branch of the European Union. The President of the Commission leads a cabinet of Commissioners.

The President of the Commission also represents the EU abroad, together with the President of the European Council and the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.

The post was established in 1958. Each new President is nominated by the European Council and formally elected by the European Parliament, for a five-year term.

The current President is Jean-Claude Juncker, who took office on 1 November 2014. He is a member of the European People's Party (EPP) and is the former Prime Minister of Luxembourg.

List of Presidents[change | change source]

Parties

  European People's Party   ALDE Party/ELDR Party   Party of European Socialists   European Progressive Democrats

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Country Commission Term of Office;
Electoral mandates
Political Party
Flag of Europe.svgEuropean Economic Community (1958–1993)
1 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F004665-0003, Walter Hallstein.jpg Walter Hallstein
(1901–1982)
 Germany I 1 January 1958 30 June 1967 Christian Democratic Group
(CDU)
None (Appointed by Council of Ministers)
Hallstein Commission comprised nine members (two each from France, Italy and Germany, one each from Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands). It was faced with a formidable array of tasks. These tasks included the implementation of a customs union and "the Four Freedoms", as well as common policies on competition, trade, transport and agriculture. Though Hallstein's own vision of a federal Europe was clear, the EEC treaty left many questions open.
2 Jean Rey World Economic Forum 1975.jpg Jean Rey
(1902–1983)
 Belgium I 30 June 1967 1 July 1970 Liberals and Allies Group
(PRL)
None (Appointed by Council of Ministers)
Still a convinced federalist, he undertook to reinforce the Community institutions. He won increased powers for the European Parliament and advocated its election by universal suffrage. During his presidency, he oversaw the completion of the customs union. He also played an important role the Summit of The Hague in 1969, where the European leaders decided to relaunch European integration with two new initiatives: on the one hand, Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union (EMU), and on the other hand, European Political Cooperation (EPC), which foreshadow the euro and the Common Foreign and Security Policy of the European Union today.
3 Franco Maria Malfatti.jpg Franco Maria Malfatti
(1927–1991)
 Italy I 1 July 1970 1 March 1972 Christian Democratic Group
(DC)
None (Appointed by Council of Ministers)
The Malfatti Commission began as the integration process was relaunched: the EC adopting a financial framework and competing the single market. There was also the beginnings of political cooperation, monetary cooperation and of enlargement as talks opened with Denmark, Ireland, Norway and the United Kingdom. He resigned from this post in 1972 to run for office in Italy.
4 Sicco Mansholt (1967).jpg Sicco Mansholt
(1908–1995)
 Netherlands I 1 March 1972 5 January 1973 Socialist Group
(PvdA)
None (Appointed by Council of Ministers)
Mansholt became President of the European Commission on 22 March 1972, and continued in that position until 5 January 1973. It was around that time he was heavily under the influence of Club of Rome.
5 François-Xavier Ortoli (1973) (cropped).jpg François-Xavier Ortoli
(1925–2007)
 France I 5 January 1973 5 January 1977 European Progressive Democrats
(UDR)
None (Appointed by Council of Ministers)
The Ortoli Commission affronted the oil crisis of 1973 and the soaring prices of black gold. Ortoli, the first and last Gaullist President of the Commission, was one of the main architects of the foundation of the European Monetary System (SME) and the European Currency Unit (ECU).
6 Roy Jenkins, Chancellor of Oxford.jpg Roy Jenkins
(1920–2003)
 United Kingdom I 5 January 1977 19 January 1981 Party of European Socialists
(Labour)
None (Appointed by Council of Ministers)
The main development overseen by the Jenkins Commission was the development of the Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union from 1977, which began in 1979 as the European Monetary System, a forerunner of the Single Currency or Euro. President Jenkins was the first President to attend a G8 summit on behalf of the Community. Jenkins remained in Brussels until 1981, contemplating the political changes in the UK from there. During his Commission, there were the first European parliamentary elections in 1979.
7 Thorn Van Agt 1980 cropped.jpg Gaston Thorn
(1928–2007)
 Luxembourg I 19 January 1981 6 January 1985 ELDR Party
(DP)
1979
In 1980 Thorn was chosen as President of the Commission of the European Communities (now called the European Union), in succession to Roy Jenkins. He took office on 12 January 1981. He was seen as very close to the President of France, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, and generally as a defender of French interests in European politics. Although Thorn was not considered a very forceful Commission President, during his term of office the Commission continued to expand its power, both at the expense of the national governments of EC members, and of the European Parliament, with which the Commission engaged in a constant power struggle.
8 Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F078267-0023, Bonn, Ministerpräsidenten mit EU-Kommissar Delors-CROPPED.jpg Jacques Delors
(born in 1925)
 France I-II 6 January 1985 1 November 1993 Party of European Socialists
(PS)
1984, 1989
During his presidency, Delors oversaw important budgetary reforms and laid the groundwork for the introduction of a single market within the European Community, which came into effect on 1 January 1993. In the autumn of 1988 Delors addressed the British Trade Union Congress, promising that the EC would be a force to require governments to introduce pro-labour legislation. During his long tenure have the signing of the Schengen Agreement (1985), the enlargement of the European Community (entered the Spain and Portugal in 1986), the adoption of the Single European Act (1986), the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (associated with the creation of the European Programme of Aid to the Poorest, Delors proposal of Coluche) and the signing of the Maastricht Treaty (1992), who signed the passage from the EC to the European Union (1993).
Flag of Europe.svgEuropean Union (1993–present)
(8) Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F078267-0023, Bonn, Ministerpräsidenten mit EU-Kommissar Delors-CROPPED.jpg Jacques Delors
(born in 1925)
 France III 1 November 1993 24 January 1995 Party of European Socialists
(PS)
None (Continuation of Delors II Commission)
Attempts of a strengthening of the European Executive, Jacques Delors's Third Commission represents the European Community, like a head of State, at major international summits (meetings of the G7 and the OCDE, etc.). Delors also inspired the White paper.
9 Jacques Santer.jpg Jacques Santer
(born in 1937)
 Luxembourg I 24 January 1995 15 March 1999[2] European People's Party
(CSV)
1994
Santer became the ninth President of the European Commission in 1995 as a compromise choice between the United Kingdom and a Franco-German alliance, after the Franco-German nominee Jean-Luc Dehaene was vetoed by British prime minister John Major. Allegations of corruption concerning individual EU-commissioners led to an investigation into administrative failings (incompetence and malpractice) by an independent group of experts. Santer Commission resigned after the corruption scandal.
(-) Immanuel Marín die 23 Novembris 2009.jpg Manuel Marín
(1949–2017)
 Spain I 15 March 1999 17 September 1999 Party of European Socialists
(PSOE)
None (Appointed by Council of Ministers)
Interim President after the Santer Commission's corruption scandal.
10 Romano Prodi in Nova Gorica (2c).jpg Romano Prodi
(born in 1939)
 Italy I 17 September 1999 22 November 2004 ELDR Party
(Democrats)
1999
Prodi, a strong supporter of European Integration, became President of the European Commission thanks to the support of both the conservative European People's Party and social-democratic Party of European Socialists in the European Parliament. It was during Prodi's presidency, in 2002, that eleven EU member states abandoned their national currencies and adopted the Euro as their single currency. This commission saw in increase in power and influence following Amsterdam Treaty. In 2004 the EU was enlarged to admit several more member nations, most formerly part of the Soviet bloc. As well as the enlargement and Amsterdam Treaty, the Prodi Commission also saw the signing and enforcement of the Treaty of Nice as well as the conclusion and signing of the European Constitution.
11 Barroso EPP Summit October 2010.jpg José Manuel Barroso
(born in 1956)
 Portugal I-II 22 November 2004 1 November 2014 European People's Party
(PSD)
2004, 2009
During his first presidency, the following important issues were on the Commission's agenda: Turkey applying for EU membership, the reform of the institutions (Treaty of Lisbon), the Bolkestein directive, aimed at creating a single market for services within the EU, Lisbon Strategy, Galileo positioning system, Doha Development Agenda negotiations, European Institute of Innovation and Technology, and an EU climate change package. In 2012 Barroso has called for the EU to evolve into a "federation of nation-states". Addressing the EU parliament in Strasbourg, Barroso said he believed Greece would be able to stay in the eurozone if it stood by its commitments. Barroso also set out plans for a single supervisory mechanism for all banks in the eurozone.
12 Ioannes Claudius Juncker die 7 Martis 2014.jpg Jean-Claude Juncker
(born in 1954)
 Luxembourg I 1 November 2014 Incumbent European People's Party
(CSV)
2014

References[change | change source]

  1. "European Commission salaries". European Voice (Politico) (Supplement: The Companion to the European Commission): 56. February 2015. http://www.politico.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Commission-companion-full.pdf. Retrieved 19 June 2015. 
  2. Santer resigned before his mandate expired. His commission served in caretaker capacity under Marín till September. Replaced by Prodi, who completed Santer's mandate to 22 January 2000, when they were reappointed on their own mandate.